רשימת ספרות לועזית

רשימת כל המקורות הלועזיים שצוטטו במאמרים ובכתבות בכלנית עד ל-31.12.2016 – ספרים, מאמרים, סקירות, רשימות ודו"חות. הרשימה כוללת רק חלק קטן מהספרות  שהתפרסמה אודות צמחי ישראל ועל נושאים בוטניים כלליים. בהדרגה יתווספו פריטים לרשימה במגמה לעשותה מלאה עד כמה שניתן.

 

Abbott R, D Albach, S Ansell, JW Arntzen, SJE Baird, N Bierne,2013 Hybridization and speciation, Journal of Evolutionary Biology 26 (2), 229-246.

Abbott RJ 1992 Plant invasions, interspecific hybridization and the evolution of new plant taxa.Trends in Ecology & Evolution 7 (12): 401-405.

Abbott RJ and JA Irwin 1988.Pollinator movements and the polymorphism for outcrossing rate at the ray floret locus in Groundsel, Senecio vulgaris L., Heredity 60 (2), 295-29.

Abu Rabia, A, 2005. Herbs as a Food and Medicine Source in Palestine. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev, 6, 404-407

Adams, N.R. 1995. Detection of the effects of phytoestrogens on sheep and cattle. J Anim Sci 73: 1509–1515.

Aegerer-Kirchhoff, C. 1976 Revision von Astragalus L. sect. Astragalus (Leguminosae).   Boissiera 25: 1-197.

Akan, H. & Balos, M.M. 2008. Check-list of the genus Biarum Schott in the flora of Turkey, with a new record for Turkey: Biarum syriacum (Spreng.) H.Riedl. Turkish Journal of Botany 32: 305-310.

Akhmetiev, M. A.; N.I. Zaporozhets, V. Bnyaminovski; G. N. Alexandrova; a. I. Iakovleva amd T. Oreshkina  2012. The Paleogene History of the Western Siberian Seaway – a connection of the Peri-Tethys to the Arctic Ocean. Austrian Journal of Earth Sciences 105: 50 – 67.

Al-Eisawi, D.M.H. 1998. Field Guide to Wild Flowers of Jordan and neighbouring countries. Amman, Jordan : Commercial Press, Jordan Press Foundation "Al Rai". 296 pp.

Ali, S.I., S.M.H. Jafri and A. El Gadi, 1976 -1989. Flora of Libya. Al Faateh University, Tripoli.

Ali-Shtayeh, M.S. et al. 2008. Traditional knowledge of wild edible plants used in Palestine (Northern West Bank): A comparative study. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2008, 4:13 (electronic version)

Ali-Shtayeh, R. M. Jamous, and S. Y. Abu Zaitoun. 2015. A Comprehensive Science-Based Field Assessment of Bioactive Properties of the Native Plants of Palestine. J Biodivers Biopros Dev, 2(151): 2376-0214.‏

Aloni, E. and Waisel,Y . Recuperation of plant cover after destruction by man:        Patterns and rates, in Frey, V., and Kurschner, H.,eds., Proceeding Third Plant Life  of  South-West Asia symposium: Berlin, September 1990, p. 15

Aloni, R. and Orshan, G. 1972. A vegetation map of the Lower-Galilee. Israel Journal of Botany 21: 209-227.

Alpert, P., E. Bone, and C. Holzapfel. 2000. Invasiveness, invasibility and the role of environmental stress in the spread of non-native plants. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 3:52–66.

Andreana, L. Ososki and E. J. Kennelly 2003. Phytoestrogens: a Review of the Present State of Research.  Phytother. Res. 17, 845–869

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group, 2009. "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III" (PDF). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161 (2): 105–121 Retrieved 2013-07-06.

Anna T. B. et al 2011. The taxonomy and conservation of Campanula primulifolia  (Campanulaceae) , a crtically endangerd species in the Iberian Peninsula. Wildenowia 41.

APG III.   Bremer, B. et al.  2009 . An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, Vol. 161, pp. 105–121.

Artelari, R. and Georgiu, O., 2008. Biosystematic study of the genus Limonium (Plumbaginaceae) in the Aegean area, Greece. EO. Limonium on the islands Kithira and Antikithira and the surrounding islets. Nordic J. Bot. 22:483-502.

 Asadollahi, H. Sarir, A. Omidi,  and M. B. Torbati. 2014. Hepatoprotective Potential of Prosopis Farcta Beans Extracts against  Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Wister Rats. International Journal of Preventive Medicine 5.10: 1281–1285.

Aschman, H. 1973. Distribution and peculiarity of Mediterranean ecosystems. Mediterranean Type Ecosystems (eds F. di Castri and H.A. Mooney), pp. 11-19. Springer Verlag, Berlin.

Asgarpanah, J . 2012. Chemistry, pharmacology and medicinal properties of Peganum harmala L.. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 6 (22).

Auerbach, M. and A. Shmida, 1985.  Harmony among endemic littoral plants and adjacent floras in Israel.  J. of Biogeography 12:175-187.

Auerbach, M. and A. Shmida,  1987. Patch formation among Israeli Crucifers: How do they get away with it?  Ann. Miss. Bot. Gardens, 74: 583-594.

Axelrod, D.I. 1966. Origin of deciduous and evergreen habits in temperate forests. Evolution 20:1-15.

Azaizeh, B. Saad, K. Khalil, and O. Said. 2006. The state of the art of traditional Arab herbal medicine in the Eastern region of the Mediterranean: a review. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 3(2): 229-235.‏

Bailey, M.E. 1979. Major poisonous plant problems in cattle. Bovine Pract., 14: 169-175.

Baker, H. G. and  Stebbins, G.L.1965  The Genetics of Colonizing species. Academic Press. New-York.

Baker, H.G., 1948. Dimorphism and monomorphism in the Plumbaginaceae I. A survey of the family. Ann. Bot. (London)12:201-219.

Baker, H.G., 1953a. Dimorphism and monomorphism in the Plumbaginaceae II. Pollen and stigmata in the genus LimoniumAnn. Bot. (London) 17:433-445.

Baker, H.G., 1953b. Dimorphism and monomorphism in the Plumbaginaceae III. Correlation of geographical distribution patterns with dimorphism in Limonium.  Ann. Bot. (London) 17:615-627.

Baker, H.G., 1966. The Evolution, Functioning and Breakdown of Heteromorphic Incompatibility Systems. I. The Plumbaginaceae.  Evolution  20:349-368.

Baker, R. R. and Bellis, M. A. 1995. Human Sperm Competition. Chapman & Nall, London.

Baranov A. & Skvortzov B. 2004. Flora of China, Vol. 5, p. 340, http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=2&taxon_id=242345752

Barker, N.P.1985. Evidence for volatile attractant in Ficus  ingens (Moraceae). Bothalia, 15: 607-611.

Barrett S.C.H. 2002. The evolution of plant sexual diversity. Nature Reviews 2: 274-284.

Barrett, S. 1983. Crop mimicry in weeds. Economic Botany. 37: 255–282.

Barrett, S.C.H. 2003. Mating strategies in flowering plants: the outcrossing–selfing paradigm andbeyond. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B 358: 991–100.

Baskin, C. C., and J. M. Baskin. 2014. Seeds: Ecology, Biogeography, and Evolution of Dormancy. Second edition. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.

Baur, B., Cremene, C., Groza, G., Schileyko, A. A., Baur, A. & Erhardt, A. 2007. Intensified grazing affects endemic plant and gastropod diversity in alpine grasslands of the Southern Carpathian mountains (Romania). Biologia, 62(4):438-445.

Baytop,  A. 2010. Plant collectors in Anatolia (Turkey), Phytologia Balcanica 16 (2): 187 – 213 Sofia.

Bazzaz, F.A., 1979. Physiological ecology of plant succession. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 10: 351–371.

Becerra, P. I., and R. O. Bustamante. 2008. The effect of herbivory on seedling survival of the invasive exotic species Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus globulus in a Mediterranean ecosystem of Central Chile. Forest Ecology and Management 256:1573–1578.

Bennetts, H.W., Underwood, E.J. Shier, F.L. 1946. A specific breeding problem of    sheep on subterranean clover pastures in western Australia. Aust. Vet. J. 22: 2–12.

Benson, L. 1941. The mesquites and screwbeans of the United States. American Journal of Botany 28:748-754.

Betzig, L., Muder, M. Band Turke, P. 1988 (eds.). Human Reproductive Behaviour, a Darwinian perspective. Cambridge U.P., Cambridge.

Beyschlag, B., Lange, O.L. and Tenhunen, J.D. 1990. Photosynthesis and water relations of the Mediterranean evergreen sclerophyll Arbutus unedo L. throughout the year at a site in Portugal. III single factor analysis of light temperature and CO2 dependency of net photosynthesis. Flora 184: 271-289.

Biernaskie, J.M., Cartar, R.V. and Hurly, T.A. 2002. Risk-averse inflorescence departure in hummingbirds and bumble bees: could plants benefit from variable nectar volumes? Oikos 98: 98–104.

Billings, W.D. 1938. The structure and development of old field shortleaf pine stands and certain associated physical properties of the soil. Ecol. Monogr. 8: 437-499.

Binggeli, P. and Power, J. 1991. Gender variation in ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.). In – Proceedings of the Irish botanist meeting, University college Dublin, Dublin. After http://members.lycos.co.uk/woodyplantecology/species/ash.htm, April 2006.

Bino R.J,N. Devente and Meeuse, A.D.J. 1984b. Entomophily in the dioecious gymnosperm Ephedra aphylla Forssk. (=E. alte C.A. Mey.), with some notes on E. campylopoda C.A. Mey. II. Pollination droplets, nectaries, and nectarial secretion in Ephedra. Proceedings of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen. Series C: Biological and Medical Sciences 87:15–24.

Bino, R.J., Dafni, A. and Meeuse, A.D.J. 1984a. Entomophily in the dioecious gymnosperm Ephedra aphylla Forsk. (=E. alte C.A. Mey.), with some notes on E. campylopoda C.A. Mey. I. Aspects of the entomophilous syndrome.Proceedings of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen. Series C: Biological and Medical Sciences 87: 1-13.

Bino, R.J., Dafni, A., 1983. Entomophily and nectar secretion in the dioecious gymnosperm Ephedra aphylla Forsk. Pollen Biology and Implications in Plant Breeding. Elsevier Science, New York, pp.99-104.

Blackburn, T. M., P. Pyšek, S. Bacher, J. T. Carlton, R. P. Duncan, V. Jarošík, J. R. U. Wilson, and D. M. Richardson. 2011. A proposed unified framework for biological invasions. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 26: 333–339.

Blanchard, J. 1990. Narcissus – A Guide to Wild Daffodils. Apline Garden Society. Surrey. pp. 38-39.

Blondel, j. and Aronson, j. 1999. Biology and wiLdlife of the Mediterranean Region.  Oxford University Press. 328 pp.

Boissier (1854): Diagnoses Plantarum Orientalium Novarum 13: 11-12. Neocomi.

Boissier (1882):  Flora Orientalis, vol. 5: 87.Delforge, P. (2006): Orchids of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East.- London, A & C Black

Boissier, E. 1879. Flora orientalis; 4: 1162 – 1174; Geneva and BaselEurasia: proxies for climatic and paleogeographic evolution. Geologica Acta 7(1-2):297 – 309.

Boissier, E. 1888. Flora Orientalis : Sive, Enumeratio Plantarum in Oriente a Graecia et Aegypto ad Indiae Fines Hucusque Observatarum.

Boissier, P. E. 1843. Diagnoses Plantarum Orientalium novarum, ser. 1, 1: 37. 1843 [Jan-Feb 1843].

Boissier, P.E.(1867-1888), Flora Orientalis, 5 Vols. And Suppl., Geneva – Basel – Lyon.

Boissier, P.E., 1867: Flora Orientalis. Vol . 1. –  Geneve, Basel: H. Georg.

Bolinder, K. 2014 "Pollination in Ephedra (Gnetales)". PhD Thesis. Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences Stockholm University.

Bolinder, K., Humphreys, A.M., Ehrlén, J., Alexandersson, R., Ickert‐Bond, S.M. and Rydin, C., 2016. From near extinction to diversification by means of a shift in pollination mechanism in the gymnosperm relict Ephedra (Ephedraceae, Gnetales). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/boj.12380/epdf

Bolinder, K., Niklas, K.J. and Rydin, C. 2015. Aerodynamics and pollen ultrastructure in Ephedra (Gnetales). American Journal of Botany102: 457–470.

Boose, D.L. 1997. Sources of variation in floral nectar production rate in Epilobium canum (Onagraceae): implications for natural selection. Oecologia 110: 493–500.

Booth, T. 2014. Modern tree colonisers from Australia into the rest of the world. Pages 304–323 in H. H. Prins and P. L. Gordon, editors. Invasion Biology and Ecological Theory: Insights from a Continent in Transformation. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Booth, T. H. 2012. Eucalypts and their potential for invasiveness particularly in frost-prone regions. International Journal of Forestry Research 2012:1–7.

Bor N L 1968 Gramineae, in: Townsend, C.C. and Guest, E (eds. Flora of Iraq. Vol. 9, Ministry of Agric. & Agrar. Reforms, Baghdad.

Boswell Syme, J. T. (Ed.), 1867. English Botany, Vol. VII, p. 69, London, Phebe Lankester (Pub.).

Bottema, S.1975.  A Pollen Diagram from the Syrian Anti Lebanon. Paleorient      3:1976-1977.

Boulos, L. 2000. Flora of Egypt. Vol.2. Al Hadara Publishing. Cairo.

Bown, D. 1988. Aroids: plants of the Arum family. Timber Press.

Boyce, P.C. 2008. A taxonomic revision of Biarum Araceae. Curtis's Botanical Magazine, 2: 2-119.

Bradbury, R.B., White, D.E. 1954. Estrogens and related substances in plants. Vitam Horm XII: 207–233.

Broadhurst, L. (2015). Pollen dispersal in fragmented populations of the dioecious wind-pollinated tree, allocasuarina verticillata (drooping sheoak, drooping she-oak; allocasuarinaceae). PLoS One, 10(3) doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0119498

Brody, A.K. and Mitchell, R.J. 1997. Effects of experimental manipulation of inflorescence size on pollination and pre-dispersal seed predation in the hummingbird-pollinated plant Ipomopsis aggregata. Oecologia 110: 86–93.

Browicz, K. 1994.  Chorology of trees and shrubs in South-West Asia and adjacent regions Vol.9 . Polish Academy of Sciences. Warszawa-Poznan

Browicz, K. 1982. Chorology of Trees and Shrubs in South West Asia and Adjacent Regions. Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa  and Poznan

Buell, M.F., Buell, H.F., Small, J.A. & Siccama, T.G. 1971. Invasion of trees in secondary successiorr on the New Jersey Pedimont. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 98: 67-74.

Buhr, H. 1964. Bestimmungstabellen der Gallen an Pflanzen Mittel- und Nordeuropas. Gustav Fischer, Jena.

Bukhari, N. Coi, J.H, Jeon, C.W. and Park, H. 2008.  Phytochemical studies of the Alkaloids of Peganum. Applied Chemistr.,Vol. 12, pp. 101–104.

Burkart, A. 1976. A monograph of the genus Prosopis (Leguminosae subfam. Mimosoideae).  Catalogue of the recognized species of Prosopis. J. Arnold Arboretum. 57:219-249 and 450-525.

Burnham, J.  R. 2013 CLIMBERS,  Censusing lianas in mesic biomes of eastern regions. University of Michigan.

Burns, J.G. and Thomson, J.D. 2006. A test of spatial memory and movement patterns of bumblebees at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Behavioral Ecology 17: 48–55.

Butzer, K. W. 1958. The Near East during the Last Glaciation: A palaeogeographical Sketch. The Geographical Journal; 124(3):367-369.

CABI 2016. Acer negundo (Box elder).http://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/2862

Calder, M. and  Bernhardt, P. 1983. The Biology of Mistletoes. Academic Press, New-York.

Cal-IPC. 2015. Assessment of Tasmanian blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus). http://www.cal-ipc.org/ip/inventory/pdf/Eucalyptus_globulus_PAF_2015March.pdf.

Callaham, M. A., J. A. Stanturf, W. J. Hammond, D. L. Rockwood, E. S. Wenk, and J. J. O’Brien. 2013. Survey to evaluate escape of Eucalyptus spp. seedlings from plantations in Southeastern USA. International Journal of Forestry Research. http://cx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/946374.

Callaway R. M., and E. T. Aschehoug. 2000. Invasive plants versus their new and old neighbors: A mechanism for exotic invasion. Science 290:521–523.

Callaway, J.C. and Grob, S.C. 1998. Ayahuasca Preparations and Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors: A Potential Combination for Severe Adverse Interactions. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, vol.30, issue 4, pp 367-369.

Callaway, J.C. 2005.  Phytochemical Analyses of Banisteriopsis Caapiand Psychotria Viridis. Journal of Psychoactive Drug . Volume 37, Issue 2.

Calviño-Cancela, M., and M. Rubido-Bará. 2013. Invasive potential of Eucalyptus globulus: Seed dispersal, seedling recruitment and survival in habitats surrounding plantations. Forest Ecology and Management 305:129–137.

Camus Aimee 1934, 1935-36, 1938-1939. Les Chẽnes – Monographie

Candolle, Alph. De  1864. Cupuliferae in Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni  Vegetabilis, 16,(2): 1 -123. Paris.

Cappers & S. Bottema (Eds.) "The Dawn of Farming in the Near East". Studies in Early Near Eastern Production, Subsistence, and Environment 6, 2002 (1999). Berlin, ex oriente.

Carlson, J.E. and Harms, K.E. 2006. The evolution of gender-biased nectar production in hermaphroditic plants. Botanical Review 72: 179–205.

Carmel, Y., Kadmon, R., 1999. Effects of grazing and topography on long-term vegetation changes in a Mediterranean ecosystem in Israel. Plant Ecology 145: 243–254.

Carmi, I., Gat, J. R., and Stiller, M., 1984, Tritium in the Dead sea: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, v. 71, p. 377-389.

Carroll, A.B., Pallardy, S.G. and Galen, C. 2001. Drought stress, plant water status, and floral trait expression in fireweed, Epilobium angustifolium (Onagraceae). American Journal of Botany 88: 438–446.

Cary, N.C. Shaver, G. 1981. Mineral nutrition and leaf longevity in anevergreen shrub Ledumpalustressp.decumbens. Oecologia 49: 362-365.

Castagnoli, M. 1996. Ornamental coniferous and shade trees. In – Lindquist E.E., Sabelis, M.W. and Bruin, J. (eds.) Eriophyoid mites – Their biology, natural enemies and control. Elsevier pp. 661-672.

Castellanos, M.C., Wilson, P. and Thomson, J.D. 2002. Dynamic nectar replenishment in flowers of Penstemon (Scrophulariaceae). American Journal of Botany 89: 111–118.

Castro, M., and Rossello, J.A., 2007.  Karyology of Limonium (Plumbaginaceae) species from the Balearic Islands and the western Iberian Peninsula. Bot. J. Linn. Soc.155: 257–272.

Caveney, S., Charlet, D.A., Freitag, H., Maier-Stolte, M. and Starratt, A.N., 2001. New observations on the secondary chemistry of world Ephedra (Ephedraceae). American Journal of Botany, 88:1199-1208.

CCDB server –Chromosome Counts Database : http://ccdb.tau.ac.il/search/Limonium/

Cederroth,  C.R. and  Zimmermann,  C. 2012. Soy phytoestrogens and their impact on reproductive health. Mol Cell Endocrinol.  (2):192-200

Chabot, B.F. and Hicks D.J. 1982. The ecology of leaf life spans .Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 13: 229-259.

Chambers, J. C., and J. A. Macmahon. 1994. A day in the life of a seed – movements and fates of seeds and their implications for natural and managed systems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 25:263–292.

Chapin, F.S., Walker, L.R., Fastie, C.L. & Sharmen, L.C. 1994. Mechanisms of primary succession following deglaciation at Glacier Bay, Alaska. Ecol. Monogr. 64: 149-175.

Charlesworth D. 1981 Allocation of resorurces to male and female functions in hermaphrodites. Biol.J.of the Linnean Soc.,15: 57 – 74.

Charnov, E.L., 1978.  Sex Ratio selection Eusocial hymenoptera. American Naturalist 112: 317-326.

Charnov, E.L., 1982. The Theory of Sex Allocation. Princeton University Press, Princeton New Jersey

Chazdon, R.L., 1988. Sunflecks and their importance to forest understorey plants. Advances in Ecological Research 18: 1–63.

Christ, K.H.H., 1899. Nochmals die Lilie der Bibel. Zeitschrift der Deutscen Palestina Verein 22 : 65-80.

Christensen, N.L., 1988. Succession and natural disturbance: paradigm problems and preservation of natural ecosystems. In: Agee, Y.K., Johnson, D.R. (Eds.), Ecosystem Management for Parks and wilderness. University of Washington Press, Seattle, pp. 62–86.

Chrtek. J., Slavikova, Z., 1978: Gilederung der Gattung Adonis in drei Gattungen. Preslia 50: 22-25.

Clapham, A.R., Tutin, T.G., and Moore, D.M. 1987. Flora of the British Isles 3rd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Clements, F.E. 1904. The development and structure of veg­etation. Botanical Survey of Nebraska 7. Studies in the Vegetation of the States. Lincoln, NE.

Clements, F.E. 1916. Plant succession. Carnegie Institute Washington Publications, Washington, DC.

Clover, C. 2003. Return of the wildflowers killed off by farm sprays. The Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/education/3316063/Return-of-the-wildflowers-killed-off-by-farm-sprays.html

Cody, M.L. and Mooney, H.A. 1978. Convergence and dis­similarities of Mediterranean ecosystems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 9265-321.

Cohen, A., Harazy, A., Rabunowitch, H.D., and Stav, R. 1995. Selection for early flowering in blue statice (Limonium sinuatum Mill.)  Acta Hortic. 420:118-124.

Collenette I. S. 1997, Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia. National Commission for Wildlife, Conservation and Development, Riyadh.. Kingdom of Arabia.

Comes, H. P., And R. J. Abbott. 1998. The relative importance of historical events and gene flow on the population structure of a Mediterranean ragwort, Senecio gallicus (Asteraceae). Evolution 52:355-367.

Comes, H. P., And R. J. Abbott. 1999a. Reticulate evolution in the Mediterranean species complex of Senecio sect. Senecio: Uniting phylogenetic and population-level approaches. Pp. 171-198 in P.M. Hollingsworth, R. M. Bateman, and R. J. Gornall, eds. Molecular systematics and plant evolution. Taylor and Francis, London, U.K.

Comes, H. P., And R. J. Abbott. 1999b. Population genetic structure and gene flow across arid versus mesi environments: a comparative study of two parapatric Senecio species from the Near East. Evolution 53:36.

Comes, H. P., And R. J. Abbott. 2001. Molecular phylogeography, reticulate evolution, and lineage sorting in Mediterranean Senecio sect. Senecio (Asteraceae). Evolution 55 : 1943-1962

Connell, J.H. & Slatyer, R.O. 1977. Mechanisms of succes­sion in natural community stability and organization. Am. Nat. 111: 1119-1144.

Convention on Biological Diversity. 2010. Strategic plan for Biodiversity 2011- 2020 and the Aichi Targets.

Convention on Biological Diversity. 2015. Invasive species – glossary of  terms. https://www.cbd.int/invasive/terms.shtml accessed on 25.11.2015
International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN),

Cood , M. J. and J. Cullen 1967. Silene . In Davis , P. H. , Flora of Turkey . Vol. 2. Edinburgh , Univ. Press , P. 179-242 .

Coode, M.J.E. & V.A. Mattiews (ed. Davies, P. H.) 1972 .Flora of Turkey. Edinburgh University Press. Vol 4, pp 559-574

 Cornara, L., La Rocca, A., Marsili, S. and . Mariotti M.G. Traditional uses of plants in the Eastern Riviera (Liguria, Italy). Journal of Ethnopharmacology 125 (2009) 16–30

Cowan, M. 1999. Plant products as antimicrobial agents. Clinical microbiology reviews, 12(4), 564-582.‏

Cowan, R., Ingrouillel, M.J., and Lledo, D., 1998. The taxonomic treatment of agamosperms in the genus limonium mill. (plumbaginaceae). Folia Geobot. 33: 353-366.

Crawford, G.M and  Baldensperger, L.  1932From Cedar to Hyssop: A study in the folklore of plants in Palestine, Seldon  London.

Crawley, M.J. and Akhteruzzaman, M. 1988. Individual variation in the phenology of oak trees and its conse­quences for herbivore insects. Functional Ecology 2: 409-415.

Cremer, K. W. 1977. Distance of seed dispersal in eucalypts estimated from seed weights. Australian Forest Research 7:225-228.

Crowfoot GM and Baldensperger, L. 1932: From Cedar to Hyssop, a Study in the Folklore of Plants in Palestine. London

Cullen J. 1980 Papaveraceae. In: Townsend, C, C, , Guest, E ed(s). Flora of Iraq: vol.4, pt.2: 784 – 815

Cummings, J., I. Parker, and G. Gilbert. 2012. Allelopathy: a tool for weed  management in forest restoration – ProQuest. Plant Ecology 213: 1975–1989.

D’ancona, M.L., 1977. The Garden of Renaissance.

Dafni, A, Shmida, A and  Avishai, M. 1981. Leafless autumnal flowering geophytes in the Mediterranean region – phytogeographical, ecological and evolutionary aspects. Plant Systematics and Evolution 137: 181–193.

Dafni, A. Marom-Levy, T., Jürgens, A., Dötterl, S., Shimrat, Y., Dorchin, A., Kirkpatrick, H. E., Witt, T. (2011) . Ambophily and “super generalism” in Ceratonia siliqua (Fabaceae) pollination.  Evolution of Plant-Pollinator Relationships. Ed. Sébastien Patiny. 1st ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011. pp. 344-373. Cambridge Books Online. Web. 13 April 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139014113.01

Dafni, A., Bernhardt, P., Shmida, A., Ivri, Y., Greenbaum, S., O'Toole Ch. and  Losito, L. 1990. Red bowl-shaped flowers: convergence for beetle pollination in the Mediterranean region. Israel Journal of Botany. 39: 81-92

Dahl A S 1990   Infrageneric division of the genus Hypecoum (Papaveraceae). Nordic J. of Botany, 10: 129 – 140.

Dahl AE 1989 Taxonomic and morphological studies in Hypecoum sect. Hypecoum (Papaveraceae). Plant Systematic and Evolution , 163(3-4): 227 – 280.

Dahl AE, Wassgren, AB, Bergstrom G, 1990 Floral scents in Hypecoum sect. Hypecoum Papaveraceae: chemical composition and relevance to taxonomy and mating system. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 18(2/3): 157-168.

Dale, I. and Greenway, P.J.1961. Kenya Trees and Shrubs .Nairobi Buchanan’s Kenya estates, Ltd .London.

Dallman, P.R. 1998. Plant Life in the World's Mediterranean Climates. University of California Press.

Damboldt, J., Zimmermann, W., 1984: Adonis. In Rechinger, K.H. (Ed.): G. Hegi, Illustrierte Flora von Mitteleuropa (ed. 2), Vol. 3/3. – Berlin, Hamburg: Paul Parey.

Damgaard C. and RJ Abbott 1995, Positive correlations between selfing rate and pollen-ovule ratio within plant populations. Evolution, 214-217

Dana, E. D. , M. Sanz-Elorza., M. Vivoas., and Sobrino, S. 2005. Especies vegetales invasoras en Andalusa. Coneejeria de Medio Ambiente, Junta de Andalucia, Sevilla, 233 pp.

Danin A. 1999, Desert Rocks as Plant Refugia in the Near East. Bot.Rev. 65(2):93 – 170.

Danin, A. 2004. Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities. Jerusalem.

Danin, A. and Plitman, U. 1989. Revision of plant geograph­ical territories of Israel and Sinai. Plant Systematics and Evolution 156: 43-53.

Danin, A., 1976, Plant species diversity in the Dead Sea valley: Oecologia, v. 22 p. 251-259.

Danin, A., A. Shmida and A. Liston, 1986. Contribution to the flora of Sinai. III. Checklist of the species collected and recorded by the Jerusalem them. Willdenovia 15, 255-322.

Danin, A. (1994) Contribution to the flora of Israel. VI Stipagrostis drarii and Ambrosia confertiflora, new records from Israel. Israel Journal of Plant Sciences 42:59-61.

Darwin, C. 1877. The different forms of flowers on plants of the same species. Murray, London.

Darwin, Charles 1877. The different forms of flowers on plants of the same species. Murray, London.

 Dashtban , H. Sarir, and A. Omidi. 2016. The Effect of Prosopis Farcta Beans Extract on Blood Biochemical Parameters in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Rats. Advanced Biomedical Research 5: 116.PMC. Web. 6 Nov. 2016.

Davis P. H, Mill RR & Tan K (eds) (1988). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands

Davis  P H 1965  Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands. Vol.1, pp: 236-238. Edinburgh Univ. Press, Edinburgh.

Davis, .AP., McGough,  H.N., Mathew, B. and Grey-Wilson, C. 1999. CITES bulb checklist. Kew: Royal Botanic Gardens.

Davis, M. a, M. K. Chew, R. J. Hobbs, A. E. Lugo, J. J. Ewel, G. J. Vermeij, J. H. Brown, M. L. Rosenzweig, M. R. Gardener, S. P. Carroll, K. Thompson, S. T. a Pickett, J. C. Stromberg, P. Del Tredici, K. N. Suding, J. G. Ehrenfeld, J. P. Grime, J. Mascaro, and J. C. Briggs. 2011. Don’t judge species on their origins. Nature 474:153–4.

Davis, M. A. 2005. Invasion biology 1958-2004 : The pursuit of science and conservation. Pages 35–64 in M. Cadotte., S. McMahon., and T. Fukami, editors. Conseptual ecology and invasion biology. Kluwer Publishers, London.

Davis, M. A., K. Thompson, and J. P. Grime. 2001. Charles S. Elton and the dissociation of invasion ecology from the rest of ecology. Diversity and Distributions 7: 97–102.

Davis, P. E. (1965-1988). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands. Vols. 1-11. Edinburgh Univ. Press, Edinburgh.

Davis, P. E. 1967. Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands. Vol  2. Edinburgh Univ. Press, Edinburgh

Davis, P. E. 1985 , Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands. Vol. 9. Edinburgh Univ. Press, Edinburgh.

Davis, P.H.   Ed.   1988 .  Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands. Vol 10, p. 139. Edinburg

Davis, P.H., 1965: Adoins. – In Davis, P.H. (Ed.):  Flora of Turkey. Vol. 1. – Edinburgh: University Press.

Dawson, T. E. 1998. Fog in the California redwood forest: ecosystem inputs and use by plants. Oecologia 117:476–485.

De Candolle, A.P. 1805. In: Lamarck, J.B.P.A de M. & De Candolle A.P.,Flore Françoise, 3em ed., Vol. 4, P. 242

de Jong, T.J. and Klinkhamer, P.G.L. 2005. Evolutionary Ecology of Plant Reproductive Strategies. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, New York.

de Jong, T.J., Waser, N.M. and Klinkhamer, P.G.L. 1993. Geitonogamy: the neglected side of selfing. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 8: 321–325.

Debussche, M. & Isenmann, P. 1994. Bird-dispersed seed rain and seedling establishment in patchy Mediterranean veg­etation. Oikos 69: 414-426.

Debussche, M. & Lepart, L. 1992. Establishment of woody plants in Mediterranean old fields: Opportunity in space and time. Landscape Ecol, 6: 133-145.

Debussche, M., Escarre, J. & Lepart, J. 1982. Ornithochry and plant succession in Mediterranean abandoned orchards. Vegetatio 48: 255-266.

Debussche, M., Lepart, L. & Molina, J. 1985. La dissemina­tion des plantes a fruits charnus par les oiseaux: role de la structure de la vegetation et impact sur la succession en region mediterraneenne. Acta Oecol.IOecol. Gener 6: 65­80.

del Moral, R., and C. H. Muller. 1970. The allelopathic effect of Eucalyptus camaldulensis. The American Midland Naturalist 83:254-282.

Delile, A.R, 1812: Description de l’Egypte etc. – Paris: Panckoucke.

Di Castri, F., Loope, L., 1997. Biosphere reserves: theory and practice. Nature and Resources 14: 2–27.

Di Stefano, J. 2001. River red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis): a review of ecosystem processes, seedling regeneration and silvicultural practice. Australian Forestry 65:14–22.

Díez, J. 2005. Invasion biology of Australian ectomycorrhizal fungi introduced with eucalypt plantations into the Iberian Peninsula. Biological Invasions 7:3–15.

Ditomaso J.M., Kyser G.B. et al. (2013) Weed Control in Natural Areas in the Western United States. Weed Research & Information Center, University of California, 544 p.

Do Bees Pollinate Oak Trees?  Beesource site. 2007. http://www.beesource.com/forums/showthread.php?223270-Do-Bees-Pollinate-Oak-Trees

Domingues De Almeida, J., and H. Freitas. 2006. Exotic naturalized flora of continental Portugal – A reassessment. Botanica Complutensis 30:117–130.

Doyle, J. 1945. Developmental lines in pollination mechanisms in the Coniferales. Scientific Proceedings of the Royal Dublin Society 24: 43- 62.

Drury, W.H. & Nisbet, I.C.T. 1973. Succession. J. Arnold Arbor. 54: 331-368.

du Genre Quercus. Atlas, 1,2 Text, 1, 2. Paris.

Du, Z.Y. and  Wang, Q.F.   2014 . Correlations of Life Form, Pollination Mode and Sexual System in Aquatic Angiosperms. PLOS [online: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0115653]

Dufour-Dror J.M., Fragman-Sapir, O., Avishai M., Valczak, M., Yaacoby, T., Kagan, S., Leshne,r H., Galun, I., Heller, A., & Gotlieb, A. 2013. Israel’s least wanted alien ornamental plant species. The Ministry of Environmental Protection, Israel Nature & Parks Authority and the Ministry of Agriculture.

Dufour-Dror, J.M. (2012) Alien Invasive Plants in Israel. The Middle East Nature Conservation Promotion Association, Ahva publishing, 213 p.

Dufour-Dror, J.M. and Shmida, A. (2016) Invasion of alien Prosopis species in Israel, the West Bank and western Jordan: Characteristics, distribution and control perspectives. BioInvasions Records 5, issue 4 in press.

Dufour-Dror, J-M. 2012 Alien Invasive Plants in Israel. The Middle East Nature Conservation Promotion Association, Jerusalem

Dukas R. and A. Shmida, 1989. Correlation between the color, size, and shape of Crucifer flowers and relationships to pollinators.  Oikos, 54: 281-286.

Dulberger, R., 1975. Intermorph structural differences between stigmatic papillae and pollen grains in relation to incompatibility in Plumbaginaceae. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B. 188:257-274.

Duman, H. and Sağıroğlu M. A new species of Ferula (Apiaceae) from South Anatolia, Turkey. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. March 2005, 147, 357–361.
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/230119429_A_new_species_of_Ferula_Apiaceae_from_South_Anatolia_Turkey

East E. M.   1940 . The Distribution of Self-Sterility in the Flowering Plants. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 82, No. 4, pp. 449-518

Ebraimzadeh Araii F.,Keshshavarzi M.,Sheiaii M. and Ghadam P. 2012Fruit and seed morphology of the Fumaria L. species (Papaveraceae) of Iran.Turkish J.of Botany 35: 167 – 173 .

Egler, F.E. 1954. Vegetation science concept. I. Initial floristic composition – A factor in old field vegetation develop­ment. Vegetatio 4: 412-417.

Egoh, B., Rouget, M., Reyers, B., Knight, A. T., Cowling, R. M., van Jaarsveld, A. S., & Welz, A., 2007. Integrating ecosystem services into conservation assessments: a review. Ecological Economics 63: 714-721.‏

Ehsan, M. Qasim, M. S. Masoud, M. Rehman, S. Jahan, and U. A. Ashfaq. 2013. Therapeutic potential of herbs against diabetes. Pure and Applied Biology, 2(4): 138.‏

Eig, A. 1933. A historical phytosociological essay on Palestinian forests of Quercus aegilops L. ssp. ithabu­rensis (Decne.) in past and present. Beih. Bot. Zentralbl. Abt. B. 51225-272. (Cited in Weisel, Pollakand Cohen 1982.)

Eig, A. 1938. Taxonomic studies on the oriental species of the genus Anthemis. Palestine J. Bot., Jerusalem Ser. 1(2): 161–224.

Eig, A. 1939.  The Vegetation of the Light Soils Belt of the Coastal Plain of Palestine. Palestine Journal of Botany J. series. Vol. I: 255-308

Eig, A. 1955 Systematic studies on Astragali of the Near East. Weizmann Science Press of Israel, Jerusalem. PP: 1 – 187.

El-Bahri L. and Chemli, R. 1991. Peganum harmala L.: a poisonous plant of North Africa. Vet. Hum. Toxicol., 33: 276-277.

Ellner, S. and A. Shmida, 1981.  Why are adaptations for long range seed dispersal rare in desert plants?  Oecologia  51: 133-144.

El-oqlah, A.A, Lahham, J.N., 1985: A checklist of vascular plants of Ajlun mountain (Jordan). – Candollea 40: 377-387.

Erel R, Yermiyahu U, Van Opstal J, Ben-Gal A, Schwartz A, and Dag A 2013, The importance of olive (Olea europea) treenutritional status on its productivity. Scientia Horticulturae 159:8 – 18.

Ertug, F. 2004,  Wild Edible Plants of the Bodrum Area (Mugla, Turkey). Turk J Bot 28: 161-174

Escarre, J., Houssard, C. & Debussche, M. 1983. Evolution de la vegetation et du sol apres abandon cultural en region mediterraneenne: etude de succession dans le Garrigues du Montpellierais (France). Acta Oecol. 4:221-239.

Euro-Mediterranean Plant-Base. 2015. http://www.emplantbase.org/home.html

Farouk, L., Laroubi, A., Aboufatima, R., Benharref, A. and Chait, A.  2008. Evaluation of the analgesic effect of alkaloid extract of Peganum harmala L.: possible mechanisms involved. J Ethnopharmacol 115 (3): 449–54.

Fedorov, An. A. 1978. Flora of Russia, Vol. III, pp. 21-31

Feinbrun, N. 1986. Flora Palaestina Vo. 4. The Israel Academy of sciences and Humanities. Jerusalem.

Feinbrun, N. and Stearn, W.T. 1958.  A revision of Sternbergia in Palestine. Bull. Res. Counc. Israel, Sec.D, Botany 6D, 3: 167-173.

Feinbrun-Dothan, N. (1986a): Flora Palaestina vol. 4, text, Alismataceae to Orchidaceae.- Jerusalem.

Feinbrun-Dothan, N. (1986b): Flora Palaestina vol. 4, plates, Alismataceae to Orchidaceae.- Jerusalem.

Feinbrun-Dothan, N. , 1978: Flora Palaestina. Vol. 3, The Israel academy of sciences and humanities' Jerusalem.

Feinbrun-Dothan, N. 1978. Israel Journal of Botany, vol. 25, nos. 1-2.

Feinsinger, P. 1983. Variable nectar secretion in a Heliconia species pollinated by hermit hummingbirds. Biotropica 15: 48–52.

Feldman, M. and Kislev, M. E., Israel Journal of Plant Sciences, Volume 55, Number 3 – 4 / 2007, pp.207 – 221, Domestication of emmer wheat and evolution of free-threshing tetraploid wheat in "A Century of Wheat Research-From Wild Emmer Discovery to Genome Analysis", Published Online: 3 November 2008

Ferguson,G., 1975. Signs and Symbols in Christian Art. Oxford Univ. Press.

Fernández-Manjarrés, J. F., Idol, J., & Sork, V. L. (2006). Mating Patterns of Black Oak Quercus velutina (Fagaceae) in a Missouri Oak-Hickory Forest. Journal of Heredity, 97(5), 451-455. doi:10.1093/jhered/esl022.

Field, C. and Mooney, H.A. 1983. Leaf age and seasonal effects on light, water and nitrogen use efficiency in a California shrub. Oecologia 56348-355.

Fisher, R. A. 1930., The Genetical theory of Natural Selection. Dover.

 Fitter, A.H and Fitter, R.S.R. 2002. Rapid Changes in Flowering Time in British Plants. Science  296, 1689-1691.

Flora of China Editorial Committee (2009): Fl. China 25: 1-570.- Science Press & Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Beijing & St. Louis.

Flora of Cyprus- A Dynamic Checklist, Silene macrodonta,

Forsyth, G., D. Richardson, P. Brown, and B. van Wilgen. 2004. A rapid assesment of the invasive status of Eucalyptus species in two South African provinces. South African Journal of Science 100:75–77.

Fragman,O. and Shmida, A. 1996. Diversity and Adaptation of Wild Geophytes along an Aridity Gradient in Israel.  In Acta Horticulturae, Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium on Flower Bulbs,  430, 2, 795-802.

Fragman-Sapir, O. & F.M. Fritsch. 2011. New Species of Allium Sect. Melanocrommyum from the Eastern Mediterranean. Herbertia 65. pp. 31-50

Fragman-Sapir, O. 2008. Amaryllids of Israel – Overview, Conservation and Cultivation. Herbertia 62, pp. 59-75.

Frank, R.,   Buchbinder, B. & Benjamini, C. 2015. The mid-Cretaceous carbonate system of northern Israel: facies evolution, tectono-sedimentary configuration and global control on the central Levant margin of the Arabian Plate.  In: Homberg, C. & Bachmann, M. (eds) Evolution of the Levant Margin and Western Arabia Platform since the Mesozoic. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 341, 133–169.

Freeman, D.C., E.D. McArthur, K.T. Harper, and A.C. Blauer, 1981.  Influence of environment on the floral sex ratio of monoecious plants.  Evo. 35:194-197.

Freeman, D.C., K.T. Harper, and E.L. Charnov, 1980.  Sex change in plants:  old and new observations and new hypotheses.  Oecologia 47:222-232.

Gaert.  B., Mey,S,. & Scherb, Fam., 2013: Climbers. Censusing lianas in mesic biomes of eastern regions.  .A project of Robyn J. Burnham, university of Michigan [Electronic version] Retrieved April  10, 2015, from http://climbers.lsa.umich.edu /

Gage, E. and Wilkin, P. 2008. A morphometric study of species delimitation in Sternbergia lutea (Amaryllidaceae) and its allies S. sicula And S. greuteriana. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 158: 460–469.

Gage, E., Wilkin, P., Chase, M. and Hawkins, J. 2011. Phylogenetic systematics of Sternbergia (Amaryllidaceae) based on plastid and ITS sequence data. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, vol 166 (2): 149-162.

Galetto, L., Bernardello, M. and Juliani, H.R. 1994. Characteristics of secretion of nectar in Pyrostegia venusta (Ker-Gawl.) Miers (Bignoniaceae). New Phytologist 127: 465–471.

Galil ,J.,  Dulberger, R. and Rosen, D. 1970. The effect of Sycophaga sycomori L. on the structure and development of the syconia in Ficus sycomorus L. New Phytologist, 69: 103-111.

Galil J. (1968) Vegetative dispersal in in Oxalis CernuaAmerican Journal of Botany 55:68-73.

Galil, J. 1967.Sycomore wasps from Egyptian ancient tombs. Israel Journal of Entomology, 2: 1-10.

Galil, J. 1985. Ficus ,In: Handbook of flowering plants, 6: 331-349.

Galil, J. and Eisikowitch, D. 1971. Studies on mutualistic symbiosis between syconia and sycophylous wasps in monoecious figs. New Phytologist, 70: 773-787.

Galil. J. and Eisikowitch, D. 1968 .On the pollination ecology of Ficus sycomorus in East Africa. Ecology, 49: 259-269.

Ganders, F. R., 1979. The biology of heterostyly, N. Z. Jour. Bot. 17: 607-635.

Garcia, M.A., 1998.  Cuscuta rausii (Convolvulaceae), a new species from Greece. Ann. Bot. Fennici 35: 171–174.

Gardiner, A. H., 1936. The Egyptian Origin of Some  English Personal Names. Journal of the American Oriental Society 56: 189-198.

Gassó, N., W. Thuiller, and J. Pino. 2012. Potential distribution range of invasive plant species in Spain. Nobiota 12:25–40.

Gelbart, G. and von Aderkas, P. 2002. Ovular secretions as part of pollination mechanisms in conifers.- Annals of Forest Science 59: 345-357.

Gelderen van D.M., de Jong, P.C. and Oterdoom, H.J. 1994, Maples of the world. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.

Georgakopoulou, A., Manousou, S., Artelari, R. and Georgiou, O., 2006. Breeding systems and cytology in Greek populations of five Limonium species (Plumbaginaceae). Willdenowia 36:741-750.

Gershenzon, J.1984. Recent Advances in Phytochemistry Vol. 18, 173-320 Changes in the Levels of Plant Secondary Metabolites Under Water and Nutrient Stress.

Ghaffari, S.M., 1984: Chromosome Number Reports LXXXV. – Taxon 33: 756-760.

Ghazanfar, S.A. 1996. Invasive Prosopis in Sultanate of Oman. Aliens 3:10.

Ghirardini  M.P. et al. 2007. The importance of a taste. A comparative study on wild food plant consumption in twenty one local communities in Italy. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2007, 3:22

Gibson, A.K. et al. 2013. Life-history strategy defends against disease and may select against physiological resistance, In Ecology and Evolution 2013; 3(6): 1741–1750.

Gilbert, F.S., 1985. Ecomorphological relationships in hoverflies (Diptera, Syrphidae). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 224:91-105.

Gill, D.S. & Marks, P.L. 1991. Tree and shrub seedling colonization of old fields in central New York. Ecol. Monogr. 61: 183-205.

Gimeno I., Vila M., Hulme P.E. (2006) Are islands more susceptible to plant invasion than continents? A test using Oxalis pes-caprae L. in the western Mediterranean. Journal of Biogeography 33(9):1559-1565.

Given R. D. 1994. Principles and practice of plant conservation. Chapman & Hall, Melbourne.

Given, D.R., 1994. Principles and Practice of Plant Conservation. Chapman and Hall, London.
Hawksworth, D.L., 1995. Biodiversity, Measurement and Estimation. Chapman and Hall, London.

Givnish, T.J., 1982.  Outcrossing versus ecological constraints in the evolution of dioecy.  Am. Nat. 119:849-865.

Givnish, T.J., 1986 (edition) On the economy of plant form and function. Cambridge University press, Cambridge.

Gledhill D.   2008 . The Names of Plants. 4th Ed. Cambridge University Press. New York.

Glenn-Lewin, D. C. & van der Maarel, E. 1992. Patterns and processes of vegetation dynamics. In: Glenn-Lewin, D.C., Peet, R.K. & Veblen, T.T. (eds.) Plant succession theory and prediction, pp. 11-59. Chapman & Hall, London.

Glenn-Lewin, D.C., Peet, R.K. & Veblen, T.T. 1992. Plant succession theory and prediction. Chapman & Hall, Lon­don.

Goldberg, D.E. 1982. The distribution of evergreen and deciduous trees relative to soil type: an example from the Sierra Madre, Mexico and a general model. Ecology 63: 942-951.

González-Moreno P., Diez J.M., Richardson D.M. & Vilà M. (2015) Beyond climate: disturbance niche shifts in invasive species. Global Ecology & Biogeography 24(3):360-370.

Gordon, D. R., K. J. Tancig, D. A. Onderdonk, and C. A. Gantz. 2011. Assessing the invasive potential of biofuel species proposed for Florida and the United States using the Australian Weed Risk Assessment. Biomass and Bioenergy 35:74–79.

Gorelick, R. 2001. Did insect pollination cause increased seed plant diversity? Biologigal Journal of the Linneaen Society 74: 407-427.

Goulson, D., Stout, J.C., Hawson, S.A. and Allen, J.A. 1998. Floral display size in comfey, Symphytum officinale L (Boraginaceae): relationships with visitation by three bumblebee species and subsequent seed set. Oecologia 113: 502–508.

Govaerts R. and D.G. Frodin 1998.  Fagales – World Checklist and Bibliography, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew U.K.

Govaerts, R. & Frodin, D.G. 2002. World Checklist and Bibliography of Araceae (and Acoraceae): 1-560. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.Magazine 209: 2-119.

Grant, V., 1971.  Plant Speciation. Columbia University Press, New York

Gressel, J. and Ejeta, G. 2007.Striga control: towards ending the witch-hunt, World Scientific. 356 p.

Greuter, W. 1995. Silene (Caryophyllaceae) in Greece: A Subgeneric and Sectional Classification, in Taxon, Vol. 44, No. 4 (Nov., 1995), pp. 543-581.

Grimsson, F. R. Zetter, G.W. Grimm; G. K.Pedersen; A.K. Pedersen and T. Denk 2015.  Fagaceae Pollen from the Cenozoic of West Greenland: revisiting  Engler's  and  Chaney's Arcto-Tertiary hypothesis, Plant  Syst. Evol. 301: 809 – 832.

Guevara, S., Meave, J., Moreno-Casasola, P. & Laborde, J. 1992. Floristic composition and structure of vegetation under isolated trees in neotropical pastures. J. Veg. Sci. 3: 655-664.

Guevara, S., Purata, S. & van der Maarel, E. 1986. The role of remnant trees in tropical secondary succession. Vegetatio 66: 74-84.

Gutterman, Y. 1993. Seed germination in desert plants. Springer-Verlag

Ha Reubeni, E. 1925: The Lilies of the Field. Torreyana (25), 35-38

HadJichambis, A.C., et al. 2008.  Wild and semi-domesticated food plant consumption in seven circum-Mediterranean areas. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 59(5): 383-414

Haldane,  J. B. S. 1932 (1993). The Cause of Evolution. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Haldane,  J. B. S. 1940. Science and Everyday Life. Macmillian, Ney York.

Halevy, G and Orshan, G. 1972. Ecological studies on Acacia species in the Negev and Sinai. 1. Distribution of Acacia raddiana. A.tortilis and A.gerardii ssp.negevensis. Israel J. of Botany 21 : 197-208.

Hamilton, W.D., 1967. Extraordinary sex ratios. Science, 156: 477-488.

Hand, R. (ed.) 2006. Supplementary notes to the flora of Cyprus V. – Willdenowia 36: 761-809

Hand, R.  2015. Supplementary notes to the flora of Cyprus VIII, Willdenowia 45.

Harborne, J.B. 1988. Introduction to Ecological Biochemistry" 3rd ed. Academic Press, London.

Harley, P.C., Tenhunen, J.D., Beyschlag, W. and Lange, O.L. 1987. Seasonal changes in net photosynthesis rates and photosynthetic capacity in leaves of Cistus salvifolius, a European Mediterranean semi-deciduous shrub. Oecologia 74: 380-388.

Hassler, M., Schmitt B. 1915, Flora of Rhodes. https://worldplants.webarchiv.kit.edu/rhodos/index.php?name=Silene%20macrodonta.

Hect, A., Ezer, T., and Mandelzweig, R., 1984, Currents waves and meteorology in the Dead Sea: Israel Oceanography and Limnology Research Report, No. 46., p. 84

Hedge, I. C. and  F. Yaltirick 1982.  Quercus in Davis, P. H. in Flora of Turkey,   Vol. 7: 659 – 683. Edinburgh.

 Hegazy, A.  and  Lovett-Doust, J. 2016:  Plant Ecology in the Middle East.  Oxford University Press,  339 pp

Hegelmaier, F.   1864 . Monographie der Gattung Callitriche. 68 pp. Verlag von Ebner und Seubert, Stuttgart

Hegi, G, 1924. Illustrierte Flora von Mitteleuropa 1, IV. Munchen.

Herraiz, T., Gonzalez, D.,  Ancin-Azpilicueta, C., Aran, V.J.and Guillen, H. 2010. Beta-carboline alkaloids in Peganum harmala and inhibition of human monoamine oxidase (MAO). Food Chem.. Toxicol., 48(3): 839-845.

Herrera, C.M. 1992. Historical effects and sorting pro­cesses as explanations for contemporary ecological pat­terns: character syndromes in Mediterranean woody plants. American Naturalist 140421-446.

Herrera, C.M. and Soriguer, R.C. 1983. Intra- and inter-floral heterogeneity of nectar production in Helleborus foetidus L. (Ranunculaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 86: 253–260.

Herrmann J., I. Opatovsky., Y. Lubin., T. Pluess., E. Gavish-Regev., and H. Martin. 2015. Effects of non-native Eucalyptus plantations on epigeal spider communities in the northern Negev desert, Israel. The Journal of Arcachnology 43:101–106.

Heyn, C.C., Pazy, B., 1989: The annual species of Adonis L. – a polyploid complex. – Plant Systematics and Evolution 168: 181-193..

Heywood V H 2007 Flowering plants of the world. Mayflower books

Heywood, V.H. and Iriondo, J.M. 2003. Plant conservation: old problems, new perspectives. Biological Consrevation 113: 321-335.

Hibb, A. et al. (2015) Poster at International Oak Society Conference, Paper in preparation

Hidalgo, P.J. and Ubera, J.L. 2001. Inbreeding depression in Rosmarinus officinalis L. International Journal of Developmental Biology 45(S1): S43–S44.

Higgins, S. I., and D. M. Richardson. 2014. Invasive plants have broader physiological niches. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111:10610–10614.

Higgins, S. I., and D. M. Richardson. 2014. Invasive plants have broader physiological niches. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111:10610–10614.

Holl, K.D. 1998. Do bird perching structures elevate seed rain and seedling establishment in abandoned tropical pasture?. Restoration Ecology, 6: 253-261.‏

Holl, K.D., Loik, M.E., Lin, E.H. & Samuels, I.A. 2000. Tropical montane forest restoration in Costa Rica: overcoming barriers to dispersal and establishment. Restoration ecology, 8: 339-349.‏

Holthuijzen, A.M.A. & Sharik, I.L. 1985. The avian seed dispersal system of eastern red cedar (Juniperus virgini­ana). Can. J. Bot. 63: 1508-1515.

Horn, H.H. 1981. Succession. In: May, R.M. (ed.) Theoretical ecology principles and applications. Blackwell, Oxford.

Horovitz ,A, Galil, J .  and Stein,M. 1976 On the Origin of the Sycamore Fig (Ficus sycomorus L.) in the Middle East. Gardens' Bulletin. XXIX: 191-205.

Houlahan, J. E., and C. S. Findlay. 2004. Effect of invasive plant species on temperate wetland plant diversity. Conservation Biology 18: 1132–1138.

Houssard, C., Escarre, J. & Romane, F. 1980. Development of species diversity in some Mediterranean plant communi­ties. Vegetatio 43: 59-72.

Howel GH Slater AT and Knox RB 1993 Secondary Pollen Presentation and its biological significance. Australian J. of Botany, 41: 417- 43

 http://www.flora-of-cyprus.eu/cdm_dataportal/taxon/ec705be9-5039-4882-b3d0-44512800a090

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rose_of_Sharon

Hubert F, Grimm GW, Jousselin E, Berry V, Franc A, Kremer A. 2014. Multiple nuclear genes stabilize the phylogenetic backbone of the genus Quercus. Systematics and Biodiversity, 12: 405–423.

Huldén, E., 1941. Studien über Fraxinus excelsior. L. Acta botanica Fennica 28: 1-250. Helsingforsiae.

Ickert-Bond, S.M., Rydin, C. and Renner S.S. 2009. A fossil-calibrated relaxed clock for Ephedra indicates an Oligocene age for the divergence of Asian and New World clades and Miocene dispersal into South America. Journal of Systematics and Evolution 47:444–456.

Ighbareyeh, M.H.A. Cano- Ortiz; A.A.A.Suliemieh; M.M.H. Ighbareyeh  and E. Cano 2014.
Kotschy, Theodor 1862. Die Eichen Europas und des Orients. E. Hölzel, Wien und Olmütz, text and 40 plts. 

Imam, M., Chrtek, J., Slavikova, Z., 1977: Die Gattung Adonis L. in Aegypten. – Public. Cairo Univ. Herb. 7/8: 261-271.

IUCN 2000. The 2000 IUCN red list of threatened species, 1994 Categories and criteria.http://www.redlist.org/info/categories_criteria.html#categories (accessed September 9 2001).

Ivri, Y. & A. Dafni. (1977): The pollination ecology of Epipactis consimilis Don (Orchidaceae) in Israel.- New Phytol. 79: 173-177.

Iwasa, Y. and Cohen, D. 1989. Optimal growth schedule of a perennial plant. American Naturalist 133: 480-505.

Jaccard, P. 1894. Recherches embryologiques sur l'Ephedra helvetica. Bull. Soc. Vaud. Sc. Nat. 30: 46 -84.

Jalas J. and Suominen J. 1988. Atlas Florae Europaeae: Distribution of Vascular Plants in Europe, Vol.3. Cambridge University Press.

Jiménez-Valverde, A., A. T. Peterson., J. Soberón., J. M. Overton., P. Aragón, and J. M. Lobo. 2011. Use of niche models in invasive species risk assessments. Biological Invasions 13: 2785–2797.

Jonasson, S. 1989. Implications of leaf longevity, leaf nutrient re-absorption and translocation for resource economy of five evergreen plant species. Oikos 56: 151-131.

Jong de T., Thuijsman F., Shmida A. 2008 Optimal sex allocation in plants and the evolution of Monoecy. Evolutionary Ecology Research, 10, 1082-1109.

Jonston, M. C. 1962. The North American Mesquites, Prosopis Sect. Algarobia (Leguminosae). Brittonia 14:72-90.

Jörgensen, A. and Rydin, C., 2015. Reproductive morphology in the Gnetum cuspidatum group (Gnetales) and its implications for pollination biology in the Gnetales. Plant Ecology and Evolution, 148:387-396.

Joseph, G. Faran, M. Raskin, M. A. Lila, and B. Fridlender. 2014. Medicinal Plants of Israel: A Model Approach to Enable an Efficient, Extensive, and Comprehensive Field Survey. J Biodivers Biopros Dev, 1(134): 2376-0214.‏

Junghans , T., Fischer, E., 2008: Aspects of dispersal in Cymbalaria muralis (Scrophulariacae), Botanische jahrbucher, Volume 127, number 3, pp 289-298.

Kacelnik, A. and Bateson, M. 1996. Risky theories—the effects of variance on foraging decisions. American Zoologist 36: 402–434.

Kadmon, R. and Shmida, A. 1992. Departure rules used by bees foraging for nectar: a field test. Evolutionary Ecology 6: 142–151.

Kamari, G. and Matthäs, U. 1986. Cytotaxonomical Contributions on the Flora of Crete. III Willdenowia 15: 515-520
The Pant list http://www.theplantlist.org/

Kaplan, D., Pevzner, D, Galilee, M. and Gutman , M. 1995. Traditional selective harvesting effects on occurrence and reproductive growth of Gundelia tournefortii in Israel Grasslands. Israel Journal of Plant Sciences 43: 163-166.

Kaplan, Y. 1984. The ecosystem of the Yahudia Nature Reserve with emphasis on dynamics of germination and development of Quercus ithaburensis Decne. PhD the­sis, University of Neimechen, the Netherlands.

Kark, S., Alkon, P.U., Safriel, U.N., Randi, E., 1999. Conservation priorities for chukar partridge in Israel based on genetic diversity across an ecological gradient. Conservation Biology 13: 542–552.

Kautzch,E.F. 1910. Die Helige Shrift.

Kearns, C. A., Inouye, D. W. & Wasser, N. K., 1998. Endangered mutualisms: The conservation of plant-pollinator Interactions. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29:83-112.

Keasar T., Shmida A., Martinez J., Harari .A, Keith D., Sabatinelli G., Zylbertal A. and Horovitz A.O., 2009 Red Anemone guild flowers as focal places for mating and feeding of Glaphyrid beetles. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 99:808-817.

Keasar, T., Rashkovich, E., Cohen, D. and Shmida, A. 2002. Bees in two-armed bandit situations: foraging choices and possible decision mechanisms. Behavioral Ecology 13: 757–765.

Keasar, T., Sadeh, A. and Shmida, A. 2008. Variability in nectar production and yield, and their relation to pollinator visits, in a Mediterranean shrub. Arthropod-Plant Interactions 2: 117-123

Keasar, T., Shmida, A. and Motro, U. 1996. Innate movement rules in foraging bees: flight distances are affected by recent rewards and are correlated with choice of flower type. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 39: 381–388.

Kendall, M. G. and Plackett,  1977 (eds.). Studies in the History and Probability, Vol.2, PP: 30-34, High Wycombe.[ Summary on John Abouthnot work]

 Kigel, J.,  Konsens, I.,  Rosen,. N , Rotem, G.,  Kon, A. and  Fragman-Sapir, O.  (2011). Relationships Between Flowering Time and Rainfall Gradients Across Mediterranean-Desert Transects, Israel Journal of Ecology & Evolution, 57:1-2, 91-109

Kikuzawa, K. 1983. Leaf survival of woody plants in deciduous broad-leaved forests. 1. Tall trees. Canadian Journal of Botany 61: 2133-2139.

Kikuzawa, K. 1984. Leaf survival of woody plants in deciduous broad-leaved forests. 2. Small trees and shrubs. Canadian Journal of Botany 62: 2551-2556.

Kikuzawa, K. 1989. Ecology and evolution of phenologi­cal pattern, leaf longevity and leaf habit. Evolutionary Trends in Plants 4: 105-110.

Kikuzawa, K. 1991. A cost benefit analysis of leaf habit and leaf longevity of trees and their geographical pat­tern. American Naturalist 1381250-1263.

Kilian, N. Hein, P. & M.A. Hubaishan. (2002): New and noteworthy records for the flora of Yemen, chiefly of Hadhramout and AL-Mahra.- pp. 26.

Kislev, M. E. 1990. Extinction of Acacia nilotica in Israel – a methodological approach. In: S. Bottema, G. Entjes-Nieborg and W. van Zeist (eds.). Man's Role in the Shaping of the Eastern Mediterranean Landscape. Balkema, Rotterdam, Ch. 24, pp. 307-318.

Kislev, M.E. 1982. Stem rust of wheat 3300 years old found in Israel. Science 216: 993-994.

KKL-JNF website 2012. NewOld Community Forest Dedicated at Moshav Kidron

Klein, C., 1982, Morphological evidence of lake level changes on the western shore of the Dead Sea: Israel Journal of Earth Science, v. 31, p. 67-94.

Klein, C., 1993, The effects of the last 4000 years climate fluctuations in Eretz Israel on the Dead Sea level and Man, in Graber, M., Cohen, A., and Magarits, M., eds., Regional implications of future climate change: Jerusalem , The Israel Academy of science and Ministry of the Environment, p. 52-56.

Klinkhamer, P.G.L. and de Jong, T.J. 1990. Effects of plant size, plant density and sex differential nectar reward on pollinator visitation in the protandrous Echium vulgare (Boraginaceae). Oikos 57: 399–405.

Klinkhamer, P.G.L., de Jong, T.J. and Metz, J.A.J. 1994. Why plants can be too attractive – a discussion of measures to estimate male fitness. Journal of Ecology 82: 191–194.

Knapp, E.E., Goedde, M.A., Rice, K. J. (2001). Pollen limited reproduction in blue oak: implications for wind pollination in fragmented populations. Journal Oecologia. 128(1): 48-55..

Knops, J. M. H., & Koenig, W. D. (2012). Sex allocation in California oaks: Trade-offs or resource tracking? PLoS One, 7(8). doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0043492.

Kolmann, F. (ed. N. Feinbrun) 1986. Allium in Flora Palaestina. Vol. IV. pp 82-83.

Kotschy, K. G. Theodor, 1843. in " Plantae Aleppo, Kurdistan et Mossul", Hohenacker, Rudolph Friedrich (editor).

Kouzali, I.,  Artelari, R. and Georgiou, O., 2012. Breeding systems and cytology in Cyprian populations of six Limonium species (Plumbaginaceae). Willdenowia, 42:307-313.

Kozlowski, T.T. 1976.Water supply and leaf shedding. Water Deficits and Plant Growth(ed. T.T. Kozlowski), pp. 191-231. Academic Press, New York.

Kreutz, C.A.J. (1993): Orchideeën in Israel.- Eurorchis 5: 1-36.

Kreutz, C.A.J. (1998): Die Orchideen der Türkei.- Selbstverlag, Landgraaf & Raalte.Kreutz, C.A.J.(2004): The Orchids of Cyprus.- Selbstverlag, Landgraaf.

Kreutz, C.A.J. (2006): Bemerkungen zu den Orchideen von Libanon, Syrien, Israel, Zypren und der Türkei.- J. Eur. Orch. 38 (1): 105-160.

Krzyżkiewiczówna, W. 1928.Przyczynek do morfologjiianatomjijesionu, Lwow. (As cited in Huldén 1941).

Kubitzki, K. 1990. Ephedraceae. In: The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants. I. Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms, Kubitzki, K. (ed), Springer, Berlin,pp. 379-382.

Kubitzki, K. 2007. The families and genera of vascular plants, Volume VIII Flowering Plants. Eudicots: Asterales Edited by J.W. Kadereit and C.

Kunal, N. , Sahil, S., Ritu O., Kanaya L. D. 2013. Vasicine and related quinolizidines . Medicinal Chemistry Research, Volume 22, pp. 1-15.

Kunin, B, and A. Shmida, 1997.  Plant reproductive traits as a function of local density, regional and global abundance.  Conservation Biology 11 (1):183-192.

Kutiel (Bar), P., O. Cohen, and M. Shoshany. 2004. Invasion rate of the alien species Acacia saligna within coastal sand dune habitats in Israel. Israel Journal of Plant Sciences 52: 115–124.

Kutiel, P., O. Cohen, M. Shoshany, and M. Shub. 2003. Vegetation establishment on the southern Israeli coastal sand dunes between the years 1965 and 1999. Landscape and Urban Pl.2046:141–156.

Laguna, E, Deltoro, V.I., Perez-Botella, J., Perez-Rovira, P,. Serra, Ll, Olivares ,A. and Fabregat, C. 2004. The role of small reserves in plant conservation in a region of high diversity in eastern Spain. Biological Conservation 119 : 421–426

Lake, J., D. M. Richardson, and Pysek, P. 2004. Invasion success of exotic plants in natural ecosystems: the role of disturbance, plant attributes and freedom from herbivores. Biological Conservation 117:215–226.

Lal, B. & B. Datt. (1993): Epipactis veratrifolia Boiss.: a new record for the flora of Madhya Pradesh.- J. Indian Bot. Soc. 72 (3-4): 319-320.

Langgut, D.; A. Almogi-Labin, A.; M. Bar-Matthews and M. Weinstein-Evron 2011. Vegetation and Climate changes in the South Eastern Mediterranean During  the Last Glacial-Interglacial cycle (86 ka): new marine pollen record. Quaternary Science Reviews 30: 3960-3972.

Lansdown, R. and Jarvis, C.   2004 . Linnaean names in Callitriche L.   Callitrichaceae  and their typification. Taxon, Vol. 53, pp. 169-172

Lansdown, R.V.   2006 . Notes on the water-starworts   Callitriche  recorded in Europe. Watsonia, Vol. 26, pp. 105-120

Lansdown, R.V.   2008 . Water-Starworts   Callitriche  of Europe. BSBI Handbook No. 11, Oswad, P.H.   Ed. , Botanical Society of the British Iles, London.

Larcher, W. and Bauer, H. 1981. Ecological significance of resistance to low temperatures. Physiological Plant Ecology, Vol. 1, Responses to Physical Environment(edsO.L. Lange, P.S. Nobel, C.B.O. Osmond and H. Zelinger), pp. 408-439. Springer Verlag, Berlin.

Lebrun, J P 2001, Introduction à la flore d'Afrique. Ibis Press, Geneve.

Leiss, K.A. and Klinkhamer, P.G.L. 2005. Genotype by environment interactions in the nectar production of Echium vulgare. Functional Ecology 19: 454–459.

Lev-yadun, S. And Abbo, S. 1999. Traditional use of A'kub (Gundelia tournefortii, Asteraceae) in Israel and the Palestinian authority area. Economic botany 53: 217-219

Lev-Yadun, S;  Gopher, A; Abbo, S (2000). "The cradle of agriculture". Science 288 (5471): 1602–3.

Lewontin, R.C. 1966. On the measurement of relative variability. Systematic Zoology 15: 141–142.

Lidén, M. 1986. Synopsis of Fumarioideae (Papaveraceae) with a monograph of the tribe Fumarieae. Opera Botanica 88, 1- 133. Copenhagen, Denmark

Lindner. H.R.1976.Occurrence of anabolic agents in plants and their importance. Environmental Quality and Safety. Supplement (5):151-158

Lingelsheim, A. 1920. Oleaceae-Oleoideae-Fraxinueae.In- Engler, A. Das Pflanzenreich. Regni vegetabilis conspectus IV 243 I u. II, pp. 1-125.

Linnaeus   Linnæi , C.   1755 . Centuria I. plantarum, p.31

Linnaeus   Linnæi , C.   1762 . Species plantarum: Tomus I, p.6

Linnaeus, C. 1753. Species Plantarum 2, p 579.

Linné, C. 1767. Systema naturæ. Tom. I. Pars II. P. 73

Liphschitz, N. and Lev-Ydun, S. 1986. Cambial activity of evergreen and seasonal dimorphics around the Mediter­ranean. IAWA Bulletin 7:145-153.

Little, F.L. 1950 Southwestern Trees.A guide to the native species of New Mexico and Arizona.  Agriculture Handbook No.9, USDA, Washington.

Lledo, M.D., Crespo, M.B., Fay, M.F. and Chase, M.W., 2005.  Molecular phylogenetics of Limonium and related genera (Plumbaginaceae): Biogeographical and systematic implications. Amer. J. Bot. 92: 1189–1198.

Lorentz, K. A., and P. J. Minogue. 2015a. Exotic Eucalyptus plantations in the southeastern US: risk assessment, management and policy approaches. Biological Invasions 17:1581–1593.

Lorentz, K. A., and P. J. Minogue. 2015b. Potential Invasiveness for Eucalyptus Species in Florida. Invasive Plant Science and Management 8:90–97.

Low, I., 1924.  Die Flora der Juden.

Lucas, G.L., 1980. List of Rare and Threatened Plants of the States of the Mediterranean Basin, Athens, 13-17 October 1980

Mabberley, D.J. 2008. Mabberley's Plant-book: A Portable Dictionary of Plants, Their Classifications, and Uses. Cambridge University Press.

MacIsaac, H. J., and R. I. Colautti. 2004. A neutral terminology to define’invasive'species. Diversity and Distributions 10: 135–141.

Mahasneh, M.,  Abbas, J.A. and  El‐Oqlah, A.A. 1996. Antimicrobial activity of extracts of herbal plants used in the traditional medicine of Bahrain. Phytotherapy Research, 10(3): 251-253.‏

Mahmoud, O.  2002.  Esfand: a common weed found in Persia, Central Asia, and the adjacent areas. Encyclopedia Iranica Vol. VIII, Fasc. 6, pp. 583-584.

Mahmoudian, M., Madadkar, S. and A, Ebrahimi, S.A, 2002. An in-vitro evaluation of human DNA topoisomerase inhibition by Peganum harmala L. seeds extract and its beta-carboline alkaloids. J. Pharm.Pharmaceut. Sci., 5(1): 19-23.

Maire, R., 1964 (Ed. P.Quezel): Flore de l’Afrique du Nord. 11 – Paris: P. Lechavailer.

Manor, R., O. Cohen, and D. Saltz. 2008. Community homogenization and the invasiveness of commensal species in Mediterranean afforested landscapes. Biological Invasions 10: 507–515.

Marden, J.H. 1984. Intrapopulation variation in nectar secretion in Impatiens capensis. Oecologia 63: 418–422.

Margot, J.L., 2015. Insufficient evidence of purported lunar effect on pollination in Ephedra. Journal of Bological Rhythms, p.0748730415591662.

Marhold, K. 2011. Brassicaceae. – In: Euro+Med Plantbase – the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity. http://ww2.bgbm.org/EuroPlusMed/PTaxonDetail.asp?NameCache=Maresia%20pulchella&PTRefFk=7200000

Marshall DF, RJ Abbott 1984. Polymorphism for outcrossing frequency at the ray floret locus in Senecio vulgaris L. II: Confirmation. Heredity 52, 331-336

Mathew, B. 1983. A Review of the Genus Sternbergia. The Plantsman 5: 1–16.

Mathew, B. 1984. Sternbergia. In: Davis, PH, ed., Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh. Vol.8 pp: 360–364.

Mathew, B., 1987 . The smaller Bulbs. Batsford Ltd. London

May, F., and J. Ash. 1990. An assessment of the allelopathic potential of Eucalyptus. Australian Journal of Botany 38:245-254.

Mayer-Chissick, U. and Lev, E. 2014. Wild Edible Plants in Israel Tradition Versus Cultivation. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of the Middle-East, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of the World Volume 2, pp 9-26

Maynard-Smith, J. and  Szathmary, E. 1995. The Major Transitions in Evolution. Freeman H H publisher, Oxford.

Paw U, K.T. and Hotton, C. 1989. Optimum pollen and female receptor size for anemophily. American journal of botany.76: 445-453.

Mayr, E. 1963. Animal species and evolution. Columbia University press.

Mazza, G., E. Tricarico, P. Genovesi, and F. Gherardi. 2014. Biological invaders are threats to human health: an overview. Ethology Ecology and Evolution 26: 112-129.

McClanahan, T.R. & Wolfe, R.W. 1993. Accelerating forest succession in a fragmented landscape: The role of birds and perches. Conserv. Biol. 7: 279-288.

McCook, L.J. 1994. Understanding ecological community succession: Causal models and theories, a review. Vegetatio 110: 115-147.

McDonnell, M.J. & Stiles, E.W. 1983. The structural com­plexity of old field vegetation and the recruitment of bird- dispersed plant species. Oecologia 56: 109-116.

McElroy, J.S. 2014. Vavilovian mimicry: Nikolai Vavilov and his little-known impact on weed science. Weed Science 62: 207-216.

Meerow,  A.W., Franciso-Ortega, J., Kuhn, D.N., and Schnell, R.J. 2006. Phylogenetic relations and  biogeography within the Eurasian clade of Amaryllidaceae based on plastid ndhF and nrDNA ITS sequences: lineage sorting in a reticulate area? Systematic Botany 31: 42–60.

Meeuse, A.D.J., De Meijer, A.H., Mohr, O.W.P. and Wellinga, S.M. 1990. Entomophily in the dioecious gymnosperm Ephedra aphylla Forsk. (=E. alte C.A. Mey.), with some notes on Ephedra campylopoda C.A.Mey. III. Further anthecological studies and relative importance of entomophily. Israel Journal of Botany 39: 113-123.

Meffe, G.K. and Carroll, C.R. . 1997. Principles of Conservation Biology. 2nd ed. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer.

Meikle RD 1977-1985 Flora of Cyprus. 2 Vols., Roayal Boranical Gardens, Kew, London.

Menitsky, Yu. L.. 2005. Oaks of  Asia. English Translation. Science Publisher, Enfield(NH) USA

Mennema, J. 1989. A Taxonomic Revision of Lamium (Lamiaceae). https://books.google.co.il/books?id=pugUAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA18&dq=lamium&hl=iw&sa=X&ei=iKBTVdfYMMPpUtXHgMAD&redir_

Meshorer, Y., 1985. Fleur de-Lis. De la Bible a nos Jour 3000 Ans D’art : 164-166.

Meshorer, Y.,1982. Ancient Jewish Coinage. Amphora.

Meusel, H.,Jaeger, E., Weinert, E,. 1965: Vergleichende Chorologie der Zentraleuropaeischen Flora. – Stuttgert: Gustav Fischer.

Mill, R. R. (eds Davis, P. H.). 1982. Lamium in Flora of Turkey. Vol. 6, pp. 140-141.

Mill, R.R., 1984. Biarum, in: Davis P H  Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands. Vol.8, Edinburgh Univ. Press, Edinburgh. Pp: 52-59.

Millenium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005. Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Synthesis. Island Press, Washington, DC

Miller, A. G. and T. A. Cope (1996). Flora of the Arabian Peninsula and Socotra. Vol. 1. Edinburgh Univ. Press. Edinburgh.

Minan, Y.H. 2010. Antimicrobial Effects of Aqueous and Alcoholic Extract of Peganum Harmala L. Seeds on Two Types of Salivary Isolated Microorganisms in Al-Ramadi City. Pharmacol. JKAU Med. Sci., 17(4): 3-17.

Miri, M. Sarani, M. R. Bazaz, and M. Darroudi. 2015. Plant-mediated biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Prosopis farcta extract and its antibacterial properties. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 141, 287-291.‏

Mitchell, T.C.,  Williams, B.R.M., Wood, J.R.I., Harris, D.J.,  Scotland J.R.W. & Carine M.A. 2016. How the temperate world was colonised by bindweeds: biogeography of the Convolvuleae (Convolvulaceae). BMC Evolutionary Biology 16:16.

Moldenke H. N. and Moldenke A. L., 1952. Plants of the Bible. Waltham, Mass., U.S.A.

Moles, A., and M. Westoby. 2004. Seedling survival and seed size: a synthesis of the literature. Journal of Ecology 92:372-383.

Mooney, H.A. and Dunn, E.L. 1970a Convergent evolution of Mediterranean-climate evergreen sclerophyll shrubs. Evolution 24: 292-303.

Mooney, H.A. and Dunn, E.L. 1970b. Photosynthetic systems of Mediterranean-climate shrubs and trees in California and Chile. American Naturalist 104: 447-453.

Mooney, H.A., Parsons, D.J. and Kummerow, J. 1974. Plant development in Mediterranean climates. Phenology and Seasonality Modeling(ed. H. Leith), pp. 265-277.Springer-Verlag, New York.

Moore, P.D. 1980. The advantages of being evergreen. Nature 285: 535.

Morgan, M. (2005). Botanical Latin: The Poetry of Herb Names. MediHerb Pty Ltd.

Mosyakin,S. L. 2005. Flora of North America, Vol. 5, no. 58, online. http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=128864

Motro, U. and Shmida, A. 1995. Near-Far search: an evolutionarily stable foraging strategy. Journal of Theoretical Biology 173: 15–22.

Motro, U., 1982.  Optimal rates of dispersal. II. Diploid populations.  Theor. Popul. Biol. 21:412-429.

Mouterde, P.(1966-1970, 1984). Nouvelle Flore du Liban et de la Syria. Vol.1, 2, 3 text and Atlas. Dar el-Machreq. Beyrouth.

Muminovic, J., Melchinger, A.E. and Lubberstedt, T. 2004 .Genetic diversity in cornsalad (Valerianella locusta) and related species as determined by AFLP markers. Plant Breeding 123: 460-466

Mundry, M. and Stützel, T., 2004. Morphogenesis of the reproductive shoots of Welwitschia mirabilis and Ephedra distachya (Gnetales), and its evolutionary implications. Organisms Diversity and Evolution, 4:91-108.

Musa, M.O. 2008. A new record & taxonomic treatment of the species Silene macrodonta Boiss. of the family Caryophyllaceae in Iraq, IRAQI JOURNAL OF DESERT STUDIES, Volume: 1 Issue: 1 Pages: 104-110,

Myster, R.W. Pickett, S.T.A. 1994. A comparison of rate of succession of over 18 yr in 10 contrasting old fields. Ecology 75: 387-392.

Nadar M.R. and Talhouk S.N., 2002.  Project for the preparation of a Strategic Action Plan for the conservation of biological Diversity in the Mediterranean Region (SAP BIO), National Report of the Country of Lebanon, June 2002

Naveh, Z and  Carmel, Y. 2003 . The Evolution of the Cultural Mediterranean Landscape in Isreal as Affected by Fire, Grazing, and Human Activities, in: S.P. Wasser (ed.), Evolutionary Theory and Processes: Modern Horizons, Papers in Honour of Eviatar Nevo. 337-409. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands

Naveh, Z. 1967. Mediterranean ecosystems and vegetation types in California and Israel. Ecology 48: 445-459.

Naveh, Z., Dan, Y., 1973. Man’s impact on the several regions ofMediterranean climates. In: Di Castri, F., Mooney, H.A. (Eds.),Mediterranean Type Ecosystems—Origin and Structure. Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp. 370–390.

NCARE Herbarium, The National Centre for Agricultural Research and Extension (NCARE) in Jordan.

Ne’eman, G. 1993. Variation in leaf phenology and habit in Quercus ithaburensis, a Mediterranean deciduous tree. Journal of Ecology 81:  627-634.

Ne’eman, G. 2003. To be or not to be – the effect of nature conservation management on lowering of Paeonia mascula (L.) Miller in Israel. Biological Conservation 109: 103–109.

Nepi, M., von Aderkas, P., Wagner, R., Mugnaini, S., Coulter, A. and Pacini, E. 2009. Nectar and pollination drops: how different are they?Annals of Botany 104: 205–219.

Nestbitt, M., When and where did domesticated cereals first occur in southwest Asia? in R.T.J.

Nevo, E., Korol, A. B., Beiles, A. & T. Fahima. (2002) Evolution of Wild Emmer and Wheat Improvement: Population Genetics, Genetic Resources, and Genome…. Springer Verlag.  p. 8.

Niemi T. M., Ben-Avraham z., Gat j. r., edit 1997,  The Dead Sea The Lake and Its Setting. Oxford Univ. press.

Niklas, K.J., 2015. A biophysical perspective on the pollination biology of Ephedra nevadensis and E. trifurca. The Botanical Review 81:28-41.

Nilson, S.G., Ericson, L., 1992. Conservation of plant and animal populations in theory and practice. In: Hanson, L. (Ed.), Ecological Principles of Nature Conservation. Elsevier Science Publications, London, pp. 71–112.

Noble, I.R. & Slatyer, R.O. 1980. The use of vital attributes to predict successional changes in plant communities subject to recurrent disturbances. Vegetatio 43: 5-21.

Oberprieler, C. and Vogt R. 2000. Notes on some species of Anthemis (Compositae, Anthemideae) in Cyprus. Bocconea 11. 2000.

O'Dowd D. J., and A. M. Gill. 1984. Predator satiation and site alteration: mass reproduction of alpine ash (Eucalyptus delegatensis) following fire in southeastern Australia. Ecology 65:1052-1066.

Odum, E.P. 1969. The strategy of ecosystem development. Science 164: 262-270.

Ohashi, K. and Yahara, T. 2001. Behavioural responses of pollinators to variation in floral display size and their influences on the evolution of floral traits. In: Chittka, L. and Thomson, J.D. (eds) Cognitive Ecology of Pollination. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, New York, pp 274–296.

Olson, D.M. and Wackers, F.L. 2007. Management of field margins to maximize multiple ecological services. J. Appl. Ecol., 44: 13–21.

Omidi, and M. Ghazaghi. 2013. Prosopis farcta beans increase HDL cholesterol and decrease LDL cholesterol in ostriches (Struthio camelus). Tropical animal health and production, 45(2): 431-434.‏

Oosting, H.J. 1942. An ecological analysis of the plant com­munities of Pedimont, North Carolina. Am. Midl. Nat. 28: 1-126.

Openheimer, H.R. 1947. Studies on the water balance of unirrigated woody plants. Palestine Journal of Botany Rehovot 663-77.

Orshan, G. 1986. Plant form as describing vegetation and expressing adaptation to environment. Annali di Botanica (Rome) 44: 7-38.

Orshan, G. 1989. Plant Pheno-Morphological Studies in Mediterranean Type Ecosystems. Kluwer Academic Publisher, The Netherlands.

Otth, A. 1824. Silene L. Pp. 367–385 in Prodromus systematis naturalis Regni Vegetabilis vol. 1, ed. A.-P. de Candolle. Paris: Treuttel and Wurtz.

Ozturk, M., Uysal, I., Gucel, S., Mert, T., Akcicek, E. and Celik, S., 2008. Ethnoecology of poisonous plants of turkey and northern Cyprus. Pak. J. Bot., 40: 1359-1386.

Packham, J.R., Harding, D.J.L., Hilton, G.M., Stuttart, R.A., 1992. Functional Ecology of Woodlands and Forests. Chapman and Hall, London.

Pallewatta, N., Reaser, J. K. and A. T. Gutierrez 2003. Invasive species in South-Southeast Asia: national reports and directory of resources.

Pappers, S.M., de Jong, T.J., Klinkhamer, P.G.L. and Meelis, E. 1999. Effects of nectar content on the number of bumblebee approaches and the length of visitation sequences in Echium vulgare (Boraginaceae). Oikos 87: 580–586.

Parker, I. M., D. Simberloff., W. M. Lonsdale., K. Goodell., M. Wonham., P. M. Kareiva., M. H. Williamson., B. Von Holle, P. B. Moyle., J. E. Byers, and L. Goldwasser. 1999. Impact : toward a framework for understanding the ecological effects of invaders. Biological Invasions 1: 3–19.

Parsons, W.T. & Cuthberson, E.G. (2001) Noxious weeds of Australia. Second edition. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia, p.698.

Pasiecznik, N.M., Felker, P., Harris, P.J.C., Harsh, L.N., Cruz, G., Tewari, J.C., Cadoret, K., Maldonado, L.J.., 2001. The Prosopis juliflora – Prosopis pallida complex: A Monograph. Coventry, UK: HDRA., Coventry, UK.

Pasiecznik, N.M., Harris, P.J.C., & Smith, S.J. 2004  Identifying Tropical Prosopis Species: A Field Guide. HDRA  Publishing, Coventry, UK.

Pausas, J.G., Bladé, C., Valdecantos, A., Seva, J. P., Fuentes, D., Alloza, J. A. & Vallejo, R. 2004. Pines and oaks in the restoration of Mediterranean landscapes of Spain: new perspectives for an old practice – a review. Plant Ecology, 171: 209-220.‏

Pedrol, N., L. Gonzalez, and M. J. Reigosa. 2006. Allelopathy and abiotic stress. Pages 171-209, in M. J. Reigosa, N. Pedrol, and L. Gonzalez, editors. Allelopathy: A Physilogical Process with Ecological Implications. Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

Peleg, B.and Sudhölter, P. 2007. ( Sec.edition). Introduction to the Theory of Cooperative Games,  Springer, Berlin

Perevolotski, A., Haimov, Y., 1992. The effect of thinning and goat browsing on the structure and development on Mediterranean woodland in Israel. Forest Ecology and Management 49: 61–74.

Pesmen, H. 1972.  Ferula L. In: Davis PH, ed. Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean IslandsVol. 4.  Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 440–453.

 Petanidou, T.,  Ellis, W.N., Nikos, S.,  Margaris, N.S. and Vokou, D. 1995. Constraints on Flowering Phenology in a Phryganic (East Mediterranean Shrub Community. American Journal of Botany 82: 607-620.

Petsikos C., Dalias P. & Troumbis A.Y (2006) Effects of Oxalis pes-caprae L. invasion in olive groves. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 120:325-329.

Philbrick, C.T.   1993 . Underwater Cross-Pollination in Callitriche hermaphroditica   Callitrichaceae : Evidence from Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Markers. American Journal of Botany, Vol. 80, pp. 391-394

Phillipson, J.D. and O'Neill, M.J. 1987. New leads to the treatment of protozoal infections based on natural product molecules. Acta Pharm. Nord. 1: 144-131.

Pickett, S.T.A. 1976. Succession: An evolutionary interpreta­tion. Am. Nat. 110: 107-119.

Pickett, S.T.A. 1982. Population patterns through twenty years of old field succession. Vegetatio 49: 45-59.

Pickett, S.T.A. 1989. Space-for-time substitution as an alter­native to long term studies. In: Likens, G. E. (ed.). Long­term studies in ecology, pp. 110-1335. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY.

Pieroni, A., Nebel, S., Santoro, R.F. and Heinrich, M. 2005. Food for two seasons: Culinary uses of non-cultivated local vegetables and mushrooms in a south Italian village. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition. 56(4): 245-272

Pirker, P. and Greuter, W. 1997. Silene subg. Conoimorpha (Caryophyllaceae) in Greece. – Bocconea 5: 523-533.1997.

Plants of   Turkey:    http://www.turkiyebitkileri.com/index.php?dil=en&id=2&familya=71&cins=568&tur=5555#.WE-lzE-7q7Q

Pleasants, J.M. 1983. Nectar production patterns in Ipomopsis aggregata (Polemoniaceae). American Journal of Botany 70: 1468–1475.

Pleasants, J.M. and Chaplin, S.J. 1983. Nectar production rates of Ascelapias quadrifolia: causes and consequences of individual variation. Oecologia 59: 232–238.

Podlech, D. 2005 Thesaurus Astragalorum, 2. Index of all taxa described within and belonging to the genus Astragalus L., Munchen.

Polhill RM  1952-1989 (and continue) Flora of Tropical East Africa. Published on the behalf of the East African Governments by A.A.Balkema/Rotterdam/Brookfield, Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew, London.

Polunin, O., 1969. Flowers of Europe, a Field Guide. Oxford University Press, London.

Polunin, O., Huxley, A., 1972. Flowers of the Mediterranean. Chatto and Windus, London.

Pons, A. and Quezel, P. 1985. The history of flora and vege­tation and past and present human disturbances in Mediterranean region. Plant Conservation in the Mediterranean Area (ed. C. Gomez-Campo), pp. 25-43. Dr Junk Publishers, Dordrecht.

Porsch, O. 1910. Ephedra campylopoda C.A. Mey., eine entomophile GymnospermeBerichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft 28: 404-412.

Porte’ A.J., Lamarque, L.J., Lortie, C.J., Michalet,.& Delzon, S. 2011. Invasive Acer negundo outperforms native species in non-limiting resource environments due to its higher phenotypic plasticity. BMC Ecology 11

Post G. E. 1883-1896. Flora of Syria,  Palestine and Sinai, Beyrouth; 2nd  edited by J.E.Dinsmore,2 vols, Beyrouth.

Post, G.E.,1932-1933. Flora of Syria, Palestine and Sinai, 1883-1896; 2nd ed. By J.R. Dinsmore, 2 Vols. American Uni. Press, Bierut.

Potts, B. M., and J. Wiltshire. 1997. Eucalypt genetics and geneogology. Pages 56–91 in J. Williams and J. Woinarski, editors. Eucalypt Ecology: Individuals to Ecosystems. Cambridge University Press, Cambrige, United Kingdom.

Prančl, J.   2011 . Taxonomická revize rodu Callitriche v České republice –   A taxonomic revision of the genus Callitriche in the Czech Republic . PhD. Thesis, Prague   [https://is.cuni.cz/webapps/zzp/download/120056014/?lang=en]

Price, K.R. and Fenwick, G.R. 1985. Naturally occurring oestrogens in foods – a review. Food Addit Contam 2: 73–106

Prina A O 2009 Taxonomic review of the genus Crambe sect. Crambe (Brassicaceae), Anales  Jardin Botan. Madrid, 66(1): 7 – 24.

Protasov, A., J. La Salle, D. Blumberg, D. Brand, N. Saphir, F. Assael, N. Fisher, and Z. Mendel. 2007. Biology, revised taxonomy and impact on host plants of Ophelimus maskelli, an invasive gall inducer on Eucalyptus spp. in the Mediterranean area. Phytoparasitica 35:50–76.

Pugsley,  H.W. 1919 A revision of the genera Fumaria and Rupicapnos. J.Linn.Soc.Lond.Bot., 44: 233-354.

Pykala, J. 2003. Effects of restoration with cattle grazing on plant species composition and richness of semi natural grasslands. Biodiversity and Conservation 12(11):2211-2226.

Pysek, P. 1995. On the terminology used in plant invasion studies. Pages 71–81 in P. Pysek, K. Parch, M. Rejmanek, and M. Wade, editors. Plant lnvasions – General Aspects and Special Problems. SPB Academic Pblishing, Amsterdam, The Nethelands.

Pyšek, P., D. M. Richardson, M. Rejmánek, G. L. Webster, M. Williamson, and J. Kirschner. 2004. Alien plants in checklists and floras: towards better communication between taxonomists and ecologists. Taxon 53:131–143.

Pysek, P., Richardson, D.M., Rejmanek, M., Webster, G.L., Williamson, M. & Kirschner, J. (2004) Alien plants in checklists and floras: towards better communication between taxonomists and ecologists. Taxon 53(1):131-143.

Quattrocchi, U. 2000. CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names: Common Names, Scientific Names, Eponyms, Synonyms and Etymology, Vol. IV,P. 2350, CRC Press

Quezel P. 1978. Analysis of the flora of the Mediterranean and the Saharan Africa. Annales of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 65: 479-534.

Quezel, P. 1985. Definition of the Mediterranean region and the origin of its flora. Plant Conservation in the Mediterranean Area (ed. C. Gomez-Campo), pp. 9-24. Dr Junk Publishers, Dordrecht.

Rachmani, L.Y., 1982. Ancient Jerusalem Funerary Customs and Tombs. Bible Arch 45(2): 109-119.

Rathcke, B.  and  Lacey, E.P. 1985. Phenological Patterns of Terrestrial Plants. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, Vol. 16. pp. 179-214.

Rathcke, B., 1983.  Competition and facilitation among plants for pollination.  In:  Pollination Biology, L. Real(ed.).  Academic Press,Inc., London, pp. 305-329.

Rathcke, B., 1988.  Flowering phenologies in a shrub community: Competition and constraints.  J. Ecol. 10.

Rathcke, B., 1988.  Interactions for pollination among coflowering shrubs.  Ecology 69:446-457.

Rathcke, B.J. 1992. Nectar distributions, pollinator behavior, and plant reproductive success. In: Hunter, M.D., Ogushi, T., Price, P.W. (eds) Effects of Resource Distribution on Animal–plant Interactions. Academic Press, NY, pp 113–138.

Rautenberg, A.,  Sloan, D., Aldén, V. and  and Oxelman, B. 2012. Phylogenetic Relationships of Silene multinervia and Silene Section Conoimorpha (Caryophyllaceae), Systematic Botany, 37(1):226-237, Published By: The American Society of Plant Taxonomists.

Raven, P.H. 1971. The relationship between Mediterranean floras. Plant Life of South-West Asia (eds P.H. Davis, P.C. Harper and T.C. Hedge), pp. 119-134. Botanical Society of Edinburgh.

Regal, P. J. (1982). Pollination by wind and animals: Ecology of geographic patterns. An. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 13:497-524.

Reich, R.., 1985. On Some Byzantine Remains. Aiqot 17: 205-214.

Rejmánek, M., and D. M. Richardson. 2011. Eucalypts. Pages 203–209 in D. Simberloff and M. Rejmanek, editors. Encyclopedia of Biological Invasions. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, CA.

Rejmánek, M., and M. J. Pitcairn. 2002. When is eradication of exotic pest plants a realistic goal? Pages 249–253 in C. R. Veitch and M. . Clout, editors. Turning the tide: the eradication of invasive species. IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group, Gland, Swizerland and Cambridge, UK.

Renfrew, J.M. 1973. Palaeoethnobotany. Columbia University Press, New York.

Reusch, T.B.H. 2001. Fitness consequences of geitonogamous selfing in a clonal marine angiosperm (Zostera marina). Journal of Evolutionary Biology 14: 129–138.

Rich, T. C. G., Lambrick, C. R. & McNab, C., 1999. Conservation of Britain's biodiversity: Salvia pratensis L. (Lamiaceae), Meadow Clary. Watsonia 22:405-411.

Richardson, D. M., and P. A. Williamst. 1994. Pine invasions in the Southern Hemisphere: determinants of spread and invadability. Journal of Biogeography 21: 511–527.

Richardson, D. M., P. Pysek, M. Rejmánek, M. G. Barbour, F. D. Panetta, and C. J. West. 2000. Naturalization and invasion of alien plants : concepts and definitions. Diversity and Distributions 6:93–107.

Richardson, D.M, and P. Pysek. 2008. Fifty years of invasion ecology – the legacy of Charles Elton. Diversity and Distributions 14:161–168.

Richardson, D.M. and Rejmánek M. 2011. Trees and shrubs as invasive alien species – a global review. Diversity and Distributions 17:788-809.

Ridley, M. (sec.Edition) 1996. Evolution. Blackwell Science, Abington, England.

Riedl, H. 1985. Biarum, in: Townsend, C.C. and Guest E., Flora of Iraq. Vol 8, Ministry of Agric. & Agrar. Reforms, Baghdad.

Riedl, H., 1963: Revision der einjaehrigen Arten von Adonis L. – Ann. Naturh. Mus. Wien 66: 51-90.

Ritter, M., and J. Yost. 2009. Diversity, Reproduction, and Potential for Invasiveness of Eucalyptus in California. Madroño 56:155–167.

Rivera D, Obon C, Inocencio C, Heinrich M, Verde A, et al. 2005 The ethnobotanical study of local Mediterranean food plants as medicinal resources in southern Spain. J Physiol Pharmacol 56(suppl): 97–114.

Rivera, D. et al. 2006. Gathered Mediterranean Food Plants – Ethnobotanical investigations and Historical Development. Local Mediterranean Food Plants and Nutraceuticals

Robbins, S. (1992): Additional records of Orchidaceae for the flora of Arabia.- Kew Bulletin 47(4): 721.

Roberts, J., and F. Marston. 2011. Water regime of wetland and floodplain plants: a source book for the Murray-Daling Basin, National Water Commision, Canberra, Australia.

Robertson, A.W. and MacNair, M.R. 1995. The effects of floral display size on pollinator service to individuals flowers of Myosotis and Mimulus. Oikos 72: 106–114.

RodrÍguez-Rajo, F. J., MÉndez, J., & Jato, V. (2005). Factors affecting pollination ecology of Quercus anemophilous species in north-west Spain. Botanical Journal of The Linnean Society, 149(3), 283-297. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2005.00460.x

Rohmeder, E. 1952. Untersuchungen über die Verteilung der Geschlechter bei den Blüten von Fraxinus excelsior. Forstwissenschaftliches Centralblatt, 71 17-29.

Rois, A.S., 2014. Strategies for Conservation of Rare and Endemic Species: Characterization of Genetic and Epigenetic Variation and Unusual Reproductive Biology of Coastal Species from Limonium ovalifolium and Limonium binervosum Complexes (Plumbaginaceae). Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. Lisboa, Portugal.

Rosenthal, G.A. and Berenbaum, M.R, 1991. Herbivores – Their interactions with secondary plant metabolites, Academic Press INC

Rothwell, G.W. and Scheckler, S.E. 1988. Biology of ancestral gymnosperms. In: Beck CB, (ed.) Origin and Eolution of Gymnosperms. New York, Columbia University Press, 85–134.

Rottenberg A. & Parker J.S. (2004) Asexual populations of the invasive weed Oxalis pes-caprae are genetically variable. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. B (Suppl.) 271: S206–S208.

Rudge, A.J.B. 1987. Conservation od Species of Wild Flora and Vertebrates Fauna Threatened in the Community, Vol 1, Report EUR 10930 EN.

Ruskas, J. 2007. Buried Treasures. Timber Press, Portland.

Rutishauser R , Ronse Decraene L P, Smets E, Mendoza-Heuer I 1998 Theligonum cynocrambe: Developmental morphology of a peculiar rubiaceous herb .Plant Systematics and Evolution 210 (1-2), 1-2

Ruwanza S, Gaertner M, Richardson DM, Esler KJ. 2013. Soil water repellency in riparian systems invaded by Eucalyptus camaldulensis: A restoration perspective from the Western Cape Province, South Africa. Geoderma 200-201:9–17.

Ruwanza, S., M. Gaertner, K. J. Esler, and D. M. Richardson. 2014. Allelopathic effects of invasive Eucalyptus camaldulensis on germination and early growth of four native species in the Western Cape, South Africa. Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science 2620: 1–15.

Ruwanza, S., M. Gaertner, K. J. Esler, and D. M. Richardson. 2015. Allelopathic effects of invasive Eucalyptus camaldulensis on germination and early growth of four native species in the Western Cape, South Africa. Southern Forests 77:91–105.

Rydin, C. and , Bolinder, K. 2015. Moonlight pollination in the gymnosperm Ephedra (Gnetales). Biology Letters 11: 20140993.

Rydin, C. and Korall, P. 2009. Evolutionary relationships in Ephedra (Gnetales), with implications for seed plant phylogeny. International Journal of Plant iences 170: 1031-1043.

Rydin, C., Pedersen, K.R. and Friis, E.M. 2004. On the evolutionary history of Ephedra: Cretaceous fossils and extant molecules. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 101:16571-16576.

Rydin, C., Pedersen, K.R., Crane, P.R. and Friis, E.M. 2006. Former diversity of Ephedra (Gnetales): evidence from early Cretaceous seeds from Portugal and North America. Annals of Botany 98:123-140.

Sa’ad, F. 1967. The Convolvulus species of the Canary Isles, the Mediterranean region, and the Near and Middle East. Mededelingen van het Botanisch Museum en Herbarium van de Rijksuniversite Utrecht. Bronder Offset, Rotterdam. 60:186-193.

Sacchi, C. F., Price, P. W. (1988). Pollination of ARROYO WILLOW, Salix lasiolepis: Role of Insects and Wind. Amer. J. Bot. 75(9):1387-1393.

Safriel, U.L., Volis, S., Kark, S., 1994. Core and Peripheral populations and global climate change. Israel Journal of Plant Sciences 42: 331–345.

Saiani, D.  2009 . Callitriche Lenisulca Clavaud, una specie Italiana misconosciuta.  Quad. Studi Nat. Romagna,  vol. 29, pp. 11-18  [http://www.ssnr.it/29-3.pdf]

Salisbury, F.B. 1981 Responses to photoperiods. Physiological Plant Ecology, Vol. 1. Responses to Physical Environment (eds 0.L. Lange, P.S. Nobel, C.B.0. Osmond and H. Zelinger), pp. 135-139. Springer­Verlag, Berlin.

Sallon, S., Solowey, E., Cohen, Y., Korchinsky, R., Egli, M., Woodhatch, I., Simchoni, O. and Kislev, M. 2008. Germination, genetics and growth of an ancient date seed. Science 320: 1464.

Santisuk, Th., 1979: A palynological study of the tribe Ranunculeae (Ranunculaceae). Opera Botanica 48: 1-74.

Sapir, Y., Shmida, A. and Fragman, O. 2003.  Constructing Red Number for setting conservation priorities of endangered plant species:  Israel flora as a test case.  Journal for Nature Conservation 11(2), 91-108.

Sargent, C. S. 1965. Manual of the trees of North America. Dover Pub. New York

SAS Institute 1988 SAS/STAT user guide.

Schiller, G., Cohen, S., Ungar, E.D., Moshe, Y., and Herr, N. 2007. Estimating water use of sclerophyllous species under East-Mediterranean climate: III. Tabor oak forest sap flow distribution and transpiration. Forest ecology and management 238: 147-155.‏

Schotsman, H.D.   1958 . Notes on Callitriche hermaphroditica Jusl.  Acta Botanica Neerlandica, Vol. 7, pp. 519-523

Schwarz, O.1936-38. Monographie der Eichen Europas und des Mittelmeergebietes. I. Text: 1 – 200, II. Atlas der Blattformen, Feddes Repert.Spec.Nov. Regni.Veg., Sonderbeiheft D. Berlin.

Segal, S., 1969: Ecological notes on wall vegetation. Uitgeverij Dr. W. junk N. v. Den Haag .

 Seifi, F. Seifi, A. Z. Mahmoudabadi, M. J. Mahdavi, and R. Seifi. 2013. In vitro ant- Candida  activity of Prosopis farcta.  Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology.‏

Seil P.D.1964 in Flora Europea vol.1 pp: 255-258. Tutin, T.G., Heywood V.H., Burges N.A., Moore D.R., Valentine D.H., Walters S.M., Webb D.A., (eds.) 1964–1980. Flora Europaea. 5 Vols. Cambridge University Press.

Shackleton, R.T., Le Maitre, D.C., Pasiecznik, N.M., & Richardson, D.M. 2014 Prosopis: A global assessment of the biogeography, benefits, impacts and management of one of the world’s worst woody invasive plant taxa. AoBPlants 6.

Shafir, S. 2000. Risk-sensitive foraging: the effect of relative variability. Oikos 89: 663–669.

Shangena, Z.E., 1976: Chromosome numbers of some species of the genus Adonis in the USSR – Ranunculaceae. Bot. Zh. (Lenigrad) 61: 1603- 1608.

Shapira, Z., Terkel, J., Egozi, Y., Nyska, A. and Friedman, J. 1989.  Abortifacient potential for the epigeal parts of Peganum harmala. J. Ethnopharmacol., 27: 319-325.

Shatkay, M., 1985, The newly exposed sediments on the westren shores of the Dead Sea. Chemical and mineralogical analysis (M.S. Thesis): Rehovot, Israel, The Weizmann Institute of Science, 96 p.

Sheahan, M. C. and Chase, M. W. 1996, A phylogenetic analysis of Zygophyllaceae R.Br. based on morphological anatomical and rbcL DNA sequence data. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 122: 279-300.

Shemesh, M., Ayalon, N. and Lindner, H.R. 1969. Coumestrol and 4'-O-methyl- coumestrol in alfalfa grown in Northern Israel. Possible effect of a foliar pathogen (Pseudopeziza medicaginis (Lib)). Refuah Vet. 26:1-7

Shifman, A. (2014): Southern subspecies of Epipactis veratrifolia.- J. Eur. Orch. 46(3/4): 587-615.

Shmida, A. 1978. Remarks on the paleo-climate of Sinai: based on the distribution patterns of relict plants. Prehistoric investigations in Gabel Maghara Northern Sinai (edsO. Bar-Yosef and L. Phillips), pp. 36-52. Kedem, Jerusalem.

Shmida, A. and Dafni, A. 1989. Blooming strategies, flower size and advertising in the "Lily-group" geophytes in Israel. Herbertia 5: 111-122.

Shmida, A. and Kadmon, R. 1991. Within-plant patchiness in nectar standing crop in Anchusa strigosa. Plant Ecology 94: 95–99.

Shmida, A. and M. Werger, 1992.  Growth form diversity on the Canary Islands.  Vegetatio 102:183-199.

Shmida, A. and Peleg,B. 1996.  Strict and symmetric correlated equilibria are the distributions of the ESS's of biological conflicts with asymmetric roles. In:  Understanding Strategic Interaction – Essays in Honor of Reinhard Selten, W. Albers, W. Guth, B. Moldovanu, and E. van Damme, (eds.).  Springer -Verlag, 1996.. pp. 149-170.

Shmida, A. and S.Ellner, 1984.  Seed dispersal on pastoral grazers in open Mediterranean chaparral, Israel.  Isr. J. Bot. 32(3): 147-159.

Shmida, A. and T. Burgess, 1988. Plant Growth-Form Strategies and Vegetation Types in Arid Environments. In:  M. J. A. Werger (ed.), Vegetation Structure. SPB Academic Publishing, The Hague, Netherlands. pp 1-31.

Shmida, A., 1981.  Mediterranean vegetation of Israel and California, similarities and differences.  Israel. J. Botany. 30(3): 105- 123.

Shmida, A., 1984. Endemism in the flora of Israel. Botanische Jahrbucher fur Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie104: 537–567.

Shmida, A., 1985.  Why do some Compositae have a deciduous Pappus ? Ann. Miss. Bot. Gardens 72: 184 186.

Shmida, A., and A. Dafni, 1990.  Blooming strategies, flower size and advertising in the "Lily-group" geophytes in Israel.  Herbertia, 45: 111-123

Shore, L.S, Kapulnik, Y., Ben-Dov, B., Fridman, Y., Wininger, S. and Shemesh, M. 1992. Effects of estrone and 17ß-estradiol on vegetative growth of Medicago sativa. Physiol. Plantarum 84:217-222.

Shuyin Song, K. Krajewska and Yufei Wang 2000. The first occurrence of the Quercus Section Cerris Spach fruits in the Miocene of China.  Acta Palaebot. 40(2):153-163.

Simberloff D. (2003) Eradication – preventing invasions at the outset. Weed science 51:247-253.

Simberloff D. (2014) Biological invasions: What’s worth fighting and what can be won? Ecological Engineering 65:112-121.

Simberloff, D., J. L. Martin, P. Genovesi, V. Maris, D. a. Wardle, J. Aronson, F. Courchamp, B. Galil, E. García-Berthou, M. Pascal, P. Pyšek, R. Sousa, E. Tabacchi, and M. Vilà. 2013. Impacts of biological invasions: What’s what and the way forward. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 28: 58–66.

Simberloff, D., L. Souza, and M. NUnez. 2012. The natives are restless, but not often and mostly when disturbed. Ecology 93: 598–607.

Smith, J. 1878. Bible Plants: Their History, with Review of the Opinions of Various Writers Regarding their Identification. London.

Somlyay, L. and Bauer, N. 2007. Distribution of a little known plant species, Valerianella pumila in Hungary. Studia bot. hung. 38, pp. 143–153

Southwick, A.K. and Southwick, E.E. 1983. Aging effect on nectar production in two clones of Asclepias syriaca. Oecologia 56: 121–125.

Spach, E., 1839: Histoire naturelle des vegetaux. Phanerogames.Vol. 7. – Paris: Libr. Encycl. De Roret.

Spafford-Vester, B. 1962: Flowers of the Holy Land. Hallmark Cards, inc. Missouri.

Stapf, O., 1889: Die Arten der Gattung Adonis. – Sitzungsber. K. K. zoolog. Gesell. Wien 39: 1-3.

Stebbins Jr., G.L., 1942.  The genetic approach to problems of rare and endemic species.  Madrono 6:241-272.

Stebbins, G.L., 1950.  Variation and Evolution in Plants. Columbia Univ.Press, New-York.

Stebbins, G.L., 1971.  Process of Organic Evolution. Prentice-Hall, New Jersy.

Steiner, A.M. and Ruckenbauer,P. 1995. Germination of 110-year-old cereal and weed seeds, the Vienna Sample of 1877. Verification of effective ultra-dry storage at ambient temperature. Seed Science Research, 5:195-199.

Stienberg, C., 1971: Revisionesistematica e distributive delle Adonis anuali in Italia. – Webbia 25: 229- 351.

Strother J.L. 2007, The genus Ambrosia.  Flora of North America (E-flora) Vol. 21, pp. 3, 9, 10, 25.

Sutcliffe, O. and Kay, Q., 2000. Changes in the arable flora of central southern England since the 1960s. Biological Conservation. 93:1-8.

Szczesniak, E. & Swierkos, K., 2003: Cymbalaria muralis   and Cymbalarietum  muralis Gors in Lower Silesia – expansion or regression. In:  P. Gaeten.,  B. May. & Schreb 1966

Tachtadjan, A. L(2001): Flora Armenia, vol. 10, Monocotyledons (168-171). A.R.G. Gantner Verlag KG, Liechtenstein,. (Russian).

Tackholm, V.L. 1964. Faraos Blomster. Natur oder Kulture.

Taira, Z., Kanzawa, S., Dohara, C., Ishida, S., Matsumoto, M.and Sakiya, Y. 1997, Intercalation of six b-carboline derivatives into DNA. Jpn. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health, 43: 83-91

Takaso T. 1990. ‘Pollination drop’ time at the Arnold Arboretum. Arnoldia 50: 2–7.

Tal, O. 2003. Geschlechtsverteilung und Blühphänologie der gemeinen Esche (Fraxinus excelsior L.). Diplomarbeit Leipzig.

Tal, O. 2006.Comparative flowering ecology of Fraxinus excelsior, Acer platanoides, Acer pseudoplatanus and Tiliacordata in the canopy of Leipzig’s floodplain forest.PhD thesis, Leipzig, Germany.(http://d-nb.info/989688283/34)

Tamura, S., & Kudo, G. (2000). Wind pollination and insect pollination of two temperate willow species, Salix miyabeana and Salix sachalinensis. Plant Ecology, 147(2):185-192.  doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1009870521175

Tapper, P.-G. 1996. Long-term patterns of mast fruiting in Fraxinus excelsior. Ecology 77: 2567-2572.

Tatoni, T. & Roche, P. 1994. Comparison of old-field and forest revegetation dynamics in Provence. J. Veg. Sci. 5: 295-302.

Tererai, F., M. Gaertner, S. M. Jacobs, and D. M. Richardson. 2015. Eucalyptus camaldulensis invasion in riparaian zones reveals few significant effects on soil physico-chemical properties. River Research and Applications 31:590-605.

Tererai, F., M. Gaertner, S. M. Jacobs, and D. M. Richardson. 2013. Eucalyptus invasions in riparian forests: Effects on native vegetation community diversity, stand structure and composition. Forest Ecology and Management 297:84–93.

The Herbarium of the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris.

The Herbarium of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AB, London.

The Herbarium of the Swedish Museum of Natural History Department of Botany (S), S-G-8707, https://plants.jstor.org/partner/S.

The Plant List Website. 2013. Kew Gardens & Missouri Botanical Garden.  http://www.theplantlist.org/

Theophrastus (372-287 B.C) 1961. Enquiring into plants. Translated by A. Hart and W. Heinemann ,London.

Thompson J.D. 2005, Plant Evolution in the Mediterranean. Oxford University Press.

Thompson, K. 1987. Seeds and seed banks. New Phytologist 106: 23-34.

Thompson,P.A., 1973. Effects of Cultivation on the germination character of the Corn Cockle ( Agrostemma githago). Ann.Bot. 37: 133-154. 

Tilman, D. 1987. Secondary succession and the pattern of plant dominance along experimental nitrogen gradients. Ecol. Monogr. 57: 189-214.

Tilman, D. 1988. Plant strategies and the dynamics and structure of plant communities. Monographs in Popula­tion Biology 28, Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, NJ.

Tohmé, G and Tohmé, H 2014. Illustrated Flora of Lebanon, National Council for Scientific Research.

Tohme, G. and H. Tohme 2007. Illustrated Flora of Lebanon. CNRS, Chemaly and Chemaly, Beirut.

Tornadore N, Marcucci R, Marchiori S. 1998. Aegialophila pumila (L.) Boiss. (Asteraceae): a new species in Italy. Israel J. Pl. Sci. 46. (1): 61-65

Tourenq, C. et al. (2009): Characterisation of the Wadi Wurayan Catchment Basin, the First Mountain Protected Area in the United Arab Emirates.- International Journal of Ecology and Environmental Sciences 35 (4): 295-296.

Townsend, C.C. and Guest, E. (later Townsend, C.C. & Guest & Al-Rawi, A) (1966-1985). Flora of Iraq. Vols. 1-9., Ministry of Agric. & Agrar. Reforms, Baghdad.

Townsend, C.C., 1980: Adonis. – In Townsend, C.C., Guest, E., Flora of Iraq. Vol. 4/2. – Baghdad: Ministry of Agriculture.

Traba, J. F. Ascarate., and B. Peco 2004. From what depth do seeds emerge? A soil seed bank experiment with Medierranean grassland species. Seed Science Research 4, 297-303.

Trimen, H.   1870 . Callitriche truncata Guss. As a British plant. The Journal of Botany, British and Foreign, Seeman, B.   Ed. , Vol. 8. pp. 154-157

Trimen, H. 1874. On a Rumex from the South of England, in: The Journal of Botany, British and Foreign, Trimen H. (Ed.), Vol. III, pp. 161-163, London

Tristram H. B.1884. The survey of western Palestine. London. The committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund. pp. 421

Trivers, R. L. and Hare, H. 1976. Haplodiploidy and the evolution of social insects. Science, 191: 249-263.

Truchan, M. & Sobbisz, Z., 2006: Distribution of Cymbalaria muralis. In the central part of Polish Pomerania. In:  P. Gaeten, B.  Mey. &  Schreb.  Biodiv. Res. Conserv. 1-2: p 98-101.

Tuna Ekim, Hasan Akan, Esat Cetin and Tahir Polat, 2005. The Flora of Kuyulu Erosion District (Adiyaman/Turkey). Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 4: 171-183.

Turketti, S.S., 2010. A study of tristyly in South African Oxalis . Ph.D. Dissertation University of Stellenbosch,  December 2010.

Turnbull, J. W. 1999. Eucalypt plantations. New Forests 17:37–52.

Tutin et al.   1972 . Flora Europaea. Vol. 3, p. 124

Tutin, T.G. 2006. Flora Europaea Vol. 4. pp. 49-50. Cambridge University Press.

Tutin, T.G., 1964: Adonis. – In Tutin, T.G. et al. Flora Europaea. Vol 1, – Cambridge: University Press.

Tutin, T.G., Heywood V.H., Burges N.A., Moore D.R., Valentine D.H., Walters S.M., Webb D.A., (eds.) 1980. Flora Europaea.  Vol 5, page 271. Cambridge University Press.

Tutin, T.G., Heywood V.H., Burges N.A., Moore D.R., Valentine D.H., Walters S.M., Webb D.A., (eds.) 1964–1980. Flora Europaea. 5 Vols. Cambridge University Press.

Twaij, A.  and E. A. Al-Dujaili. 2014. Evaluation of the anti-diabetic and anti-ulcer properties of some Jordanian and Iraqi medicinal plants; a screening study. JMED Res: 1-10.‏

Tybirk, K. 1993. Pollination, breeding system and seed abortion in some African Acacias. Botanical J.of the Linnean Society 112 : 107 – 137.

Underwood, A.J. 1981. Experimental marine biology. Oceanography and Marine Biology Annual Review, 19: 513-605.

Underwood, E,J, and  Bennetts H.W. 1951.  The oestrogenic effects of subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum); uterine maintenance in the ovariectomised ewe on clover grazing. The Australian journal of experimental biology and medical science: 29 (4): 249-53 .

Unger, F. and Th.  Kotschy 1965. Die Insel Cypern, Wilhelm Braumuller, Wien.

Valdés, B., 1987: Adonis. – In Valdés, B., Talevera, S., Fernandez – Galiano, E.: Flora Vascular de Andalucia Occidental. Vol. 1 – Barcelona: Ketres.

Valéry, L., H. Fritz., J. C. Lefeuvre, and D. Simberloff. 2008. In search of a real definition of the biological invasion phenomenon itself. Biological Invasions 10: 1345–1351.

van Andel, J., Bakker, J.P. & Grootjans, A.P. 1993. Mecha­nisms of vegetation succession: A review of concepts and perspectives. Acta Bat. Neerl. 42: 413-433.

van der Pijl, L. 1972. Principles of dispersal in higher plants. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Vasl A, Shmida A, 2015, The adaptive role of nectarial appendages in Colchicum. Plant Systematics and Evolution. 301: 1713-1723.( Online publication date 31-Dec-2014)

Verdu, J.R., Crespo, M.B. & Galante, E. 2000. Conservation strategy of a nature reserve in Mediterranean ecosystems: the effects of protection from grazing on biodiversity. Biodiversity and Conservation 9(12):1707-1721.

Verdú, M. 2004. Physiological and reproductive differences between hermaphrodites and males in the androdioecious plant Fraxinusornus. Oikos 105: 239-246.

Vessal, M. Hemmati, and M. Vasei. 2003. Antidiabetic effects of quercetin in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology, 135(3): 357-364.‏

Vine-Prue, D., 1981. Photomorphogenesis and flowering. In: Pirson,A., Zimmermann, M.H. (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology Vol 16b. Springer Verlag, New York, pp. 457–490.

Vitousek, P. M., C. M. DAntonio., L. L. Loope., R. Westbrooks, and C. M. D’Antonio. 1996. Biological invasions as global environmental change. The American Naturalist 84: 468-478.

Vitousek, P. M., M. D’Antonio, Carla, L. L. Loope, M. Rejmánek, and R. Westbrooks. 1997. Introduced species: A significant component of human-caused global environmental change The scope and distribution of invasions. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 21: 1–16.

Vogt,  R. and Aparicio, A. 1999. Chromosome numbers of plants collected, Bocconea I I, 117-168.

von der Lippe, M., and I. Kowarik. 2007. Long-distance dispersal of plants by vehicles as a driver of plant invasions. Conservation Biology 21:986–996.

Wagenitz, G. (1975). Centaurea L. – In: Davis P.H. (ed.), Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands. Vol. 5, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, p.p. 465–585.

Waisel, Y., 1972, Biology of halophytes: New York, Academic Press, 395 pp.

Waisel, Y., Agami, M., and Eshel, A., 1987, Human interference and vegetation dynamics in historical time. In Greuter, W., Zimmer, B., and Behake, H.D., eds., Proceeding XIV International Botanical Congress, Berlin, August 1987, p. 6-09-1.

Waisel, Y., Eshel, A., Keynan, N. and Langgut, D. 2008. Ambrosia: A new impending disaster for the israeli allergic population. The Israel Medical Association Journal : IMAJ 10:856-857

Wallander, E. 2001.Evolution of wind-pollination in Fraxinus (Oleaceae) – an ecophylogenetic approach.PhD thesis, Göteborg, Sweden

Wallander, E. and Dahl, A. MS-2006. Reproductive ecology of Fraxinus excelsior (Oleaceae): A long term study on flowering phenology, periodicity and sex expression.

Walter, H. 1973. Vegetation of the Earth. Springer Verlag.

Warburg, O., 1929. Heimat und Geschichte der Lilie. Fedde Repertorium Specierum Novarum Regni Vegetabilis Beihefte 56: 167-204.

Wardle, P. 1961. Fraxinus excelsior L. Journal of ecology 49: 739-751.

Ware, A. B., Kaye, P.T. and Compton, K. S. G. 1993. Fig volatiles: Their role in attracting pollinators and maintaining pollinator specificity. Plant Systematics and Evolution, 186: 147-156.

Webb, D. A. 1972: Cymbalaria In: Tutin T. g., Heywood v. H., Burges N. A., Moore D. M., (eds) Flora europaea, vol. 3. Cambridge University Press. P.  236-238

Weber, E. 2003. Invasive plant species of the world, a reference guide to environmental weeds. CABI Publishing, Oxon, p.548.

Weinstein-Evron, M., Lev-Yadun, S., 2000. Paleoecology of Pinus halepensis in Israel in the light of palynological and archaeobotanical data. In: Ne’eman, G., Trabaud, L. (Eds.), Ecology Biogeography and Management of Pinus halepensis and P. brutia forest ecosystems in the Mediterranean Basin. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, pp. 119–130.

Wendelbo P 1974 in Rechinger, K. H.  Flora Iranica.   Fascicle 111, Academische Druck, Graz, Austria

West-Eberhard, M.J. 1989. Phenotypic plasticity and the origins of diversity. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 20: 249-278.

Whitehead, D. R. (1983). Wind pollination: some ecological and evolutionary perspectives. Pollination biology, 97(08). In: Leslie Real (ed). Pollination Biology, pp. 97-109.

Whittich, A., 1960. Symbols, Signs and their Meaning. Leonard Hill.

Wiens, D. 1984. Ovule survivorship, brood size, life history, breeding systems and reproductive success in plants. Oecologia 64:47-53.

Wildes, F.T., 1995. Recent themes in conservation philosophy and policy in the United States. Environmental Conservation 22: 143–150.

Willdenow, K.L. 1797. Caroli a Linné Species plantarum: exhibentes plantas rite cognitas, ad genera relatas, cum differentiis specificis, nominibus trivialibus, synonymis selectis, locis natalibus, secundum systema sexuale digestas. P. 184

Williamson, M, and A. Fitter. 1996. The varying success of invaders. Ecology 77: 1661–1666.

Williamson, M. 1996. Biologial invasions. 244 pp. Champman and Hall, London, UK

Williamson, M., and A. Fitter. 1996. The varying success of invaders. Ecology 77:1661–1666.

Willson, M.F., 1983. Plant Reproductive Ecology. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

Wilson J.B., Daker M.G., Savidge J.P., 1990 A phenetic  comparison of some Fumaria  spp.Fumariaceae), Pl. Syst. Evol., 172, 51-63.

Wilson, E. O. 2002. The future of life.  P. 216. Abacus, London, UK.

Wilson, E.O. 2003. The Future of Life. Abacus, London, Uniteed Kingdom, pp. 230.

Wolf, M. and Shmida, A., 1995.  Association of Flower and Pollinator Activity in the Negev Desert.  In:  Arid Ecosystems Advances in GeoEcology, H.P. Blume and S. M. Berkowicz, (eds.).  Catena, 28 Verlag, Cremlingen-Destedt, Germany. pp. 173-192.

Wood, J.J. (1985): Orchidaceae. In: Townsend, C.C. & E. Guest: Flora of Iraq, Volume 8, Monocotyledons.- Bentham-Moxon Trust: 267-310.

Wood, J.R.I., Williams, B.R.M., Mitchell, T.C., Carine, M.A., Harris, D.J. & Scotland, R.W. 2015. A foundation monograph of Convolvulus L. (Convolvulaceae). PhytoKeys 51: 1–282. doi: 10.3897/phytokeys.51.7104

Woodcock, H.B. and Stearn, W.T.  1950. The Lielies of the World.

Wyatt, R., Broyles, S.B.  and Derda, G.S. 1992. Environmental influences on nectar production in milkweeds (Ascelapias syriaca and A. exaltata). American Journal of Botany 79: 636–642.

Yaakoby,  T. & Seplyarsky, V. (2011) Epiblema strenuana (Walker, 1863) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a new species in Israel. EPPO Bulletin 41(2):243-246.

Yacine, A. and Lumart, R. 1988. Spatial distribution of ge­notypes in a population of holmoak (Q. ilex L.), gene flow and mating system. Genetique Selection Evolution (France) 20: 181-198.

Yaltrik F. 1978. Fraxinus L., in Davis P.H. (Ed.) Flora of Turkey, vol.6, 147-154. Edinburgh Univ.Press

Yates, C. J., Elliott, C., Byrne, M., Coates, D. J. & Fairman, R. 2006. Seed production, germinability and seedling growth for bird-pollinated shrub in fragments of kwongan in south-west Australia. Biological Conservation, 136:306-314.

Yavin, Z. 1972. New taxa of Anthemis from the Mediterranean and SW Asia. Isr. J. Bot. 21 (3): 168–179.

Yeo PF 1993 Secondary Pollen Presentation: Form Function and Evolution. Springer-Verlag, Wein & New-York.

Zedler, J. B., and S. Kercher. 2004. Causes and consequences of invasive plants in wetlands: opportunities, opportunists, and outcomes. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 23:431–452.

Zeller, H. 1876. J. Nisbet & co., London

Zimmerman, M. and Pyke, G.H. 1986. Reproduction in Polemonium: patterns and implications of floral nectar production and standing crops. American Journal of Botany 73: 1405–1415.

Zimmermann, H.G., Hoffmann, J.H., Witt, A.B.R. 2006. A South African perspective on Prosopis. Biocontrol News and Information 27(1):1-26

Zohary D., Hoff  M. & Weiss E., (2012).  Domestication of Plants in the Old World – The origin and spread of domesticated plants in Southwest Asia, Europe, and the Mediterranean Basin.  Fourth Edition.

Zohary M and Feinbrun-Dothan N 1966-1986. Flora Palaestina. Parts 1-4. Israel Academy of Sciences, Jerusalem.

Zohary M  1966, Flora Palaestina. Vol. 1 , Israel Academy of Sciences, Jerusalem.

Zohary M. 1937 Die verbreitungsokologischen Verhaltnisse der Pflanzen Palestinas. Beih Bot Zbl A56, 1-165.

Zohary  M. 1962 Plant life of Palestine. Ronald Press, London

Zohary, D., Hopf, M. and Weiss, E. 2012. Domestication of Plants in the Old World. Oxford University Press. 243 pp.

Zohary, M.   1972 . Flora Palaestina, Part Two, Plantaceae to Umballiferae, The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities

Zohary, M. 1961. On the Oak Species of the Middle East. Bull. of the Res. Counc.of Israel 9D(4): 161-186.

Zohary, M. 1966. Flora Palaestina – Part One, Eqisetaceae to Moringaceae, The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem

Zohary, M. 1972. Flora Palaestina, Vol. II. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.

Zohary, M. 1973. Geobotanical Foundations of the Middle East. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart.

Zohary, M. 1982. Plants of the Bible. Cambridge University Press.

Zohary, M. and Feinbrun, N.  1966 – 1986. Flora Palaesitna vols. 1-4. The Israel Academy of  Sciences and Humanities. Jerusalem.

Zohary, M. and Orshan, G, 1959. The Maquis of Ceratonia siliqua in Israel. Vegetatio 8: 285-297.

Zohary, M. and Orshan, G. 1959. The Maquis of Certatonia siliqua in Israel. Vegetatio 8: 285-297.

Zohary, M., C.C.Heyn and D.Heller 1980-1984. Conspectus Florae Orientalis, Fascicles 1-